102.1 State the six areas of naval doctrine.
Describes the inherent nature and enduring principles of naval forces.
2. Naval Intelligence
Points the way for intelligence support in meeting the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.
3. Naval Operations
Develops doctrine to reaffirm the foundation of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expeditionary maritime traditions.
4. Naval Logistics
Addresses the full range of logistical capabilities that are essential in the support of naval forces.
5. Naval Planning
Examines force planning and the relationship between our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational environment.
6. Naval Command and Control
Provides the basic concepts to fulfill the information needs of commanders, forces, and weapon systems.
102.2 Discuss the following:
Naval Command and Control, provides the basic concepts to fulfill the information needs of commanders, forces, and weapon systems.
b. Naval Planning
Naval Planning, examines force planning and the relationship between our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational environment.
c. Naval Intelligence
Naval Intelligence, points the way for intelligence support in meeting the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.
102.3 State the seven principles of Naval Logistics.
Providing the right support at the right time, at the right place. This is the most important principle of logistics. Ensuring that adequate logistics resources are responsive to operational needs should be the focus of logistic planning. Such planning requires clear guidance from the commander to his planners; also, it requires clear communication between operational commanders and those who are responsible for providing logistic support. The operational commander’s concept of operations must be thoroughly familiar to the supporting elements—to ensure responsive, integrated support. Responsiveness is a product of logistic discipline, as well. Commanders and logisticians who consistently overestimate their requirements—in quantity and priority – risk slowing the systems ability to respond.
Avoiding unnecessary complexity in preparing, planning and conducting logistic operations. Providing logistics support never is simple, but the logistics plans that utilize the basic standard support systems usually have the best chance for success. Mission-oriented logistics support concepts and standardized procedures reduce confusion. The operational commander must simplify the logistic task by communicating clear priorities, and forecasting needs based on current and accurate usage data.
Adapting logistics support to changing conditions. Logistics must be flexible enough to support changing missions, evolving concepts of operations, and the dynamic situations that characterize naval operations. A thorough understanding of the commanders intent enables logistic planners to support the fluid requirements of naval operations. In striving for flexibility, the logistic commander considers such factors as alternative planning, anticipation, the use of reserve assets, and redundancy. The task-organization of combat service support units is an example of flexible tailoring of logistic support resources to meet anticipated operational requirements.
Employing logistic support assets effectively. Accomplishing the mission requires the economical use of logistic support resources. Logistic assets are allocated on the basis of availability and the commanders objectives. Effective employment further the operational commander to decide which resources must be committed immediately and which should be kept in reserve. Additionally, the commander may need to allocate limited resources to support conflicting and multiple requirements. Prudent use of limited logistics resources ensures that support is available where and when it is most needed. Without economy, operational flexibility becomes comprised.
Acquiring the minimum essential logistic support begin combat operations. Risk is defined as the difference between the commanders desired level of support and the absolute minimum needed to satisfy mission requirements. The commander must determine the minimum essential requirements and ensure that adequate logistic support levels have been attained before initiating combat operations. In some cases time will permit building up support levels beyond minimum essential requirements. During Operation Desert Shield, for example, the coalition retained the operational initiative and delayed the commencement of combat operations until a six-month supply of material was in theater and available to the operating forces. In this case, the commander was able to attain the level needed to satisfy mission requirements.
Providing logistic support for the duration of the operation. Sustaining the logistic needs of committed forces in a campaign of uncertain duration is the greatest challenge to the logistician. Every means must be taken to maintain minimum essential material levels at all times. This requires effective support planning that incorporates economy, responsiveness and flexibility. Sustainability also is influenced by our ability to maintain and protect the ships and aircraft that move material to and from the operational theater.
Ensuring that the logistic infrastructure prevails in spite of degradation and damage. Logistic support units and installations, lines of communication, transportation nodes and industrial centers are high-value targets that must be protected by both active and passive measures. For example—since we may not always have the luxury of conducting replenishment in protected rearward areas.
102.4 What was the first navy ship named after an enlisted man?
102.5 Discuss the following military customs and courtesies:
The hand salute is centuries old, and probably originated when men in armor raised their helmet visors so they could be identified. Salutes are customarily given with the right hand, but there are exceptions. A sailor with his right arm or hand encumbered may salute left-handed, while people in the Army or Air Force never salute left-handed. On the other hand, a soldier or airman may salute sitting down or uncovered; in the Navy, a sailor does not salute when uncovered, but may salute when seated in a vehicle.
Women follow the same customs and rules as men, with one exception. A woman in uniform indoors, where men customarily remove their hats, does not remove her hat, nor does she salute. She does use the proper spoken greeting, just as she would outdoors.
Salute from a position of attention. Your upper arm should be parallel to the deck or ground, forearm inclined at a 45-degree angle, hand and wrist straight, palm slightly inward, thumb and fingers extended and joined, with the tip of the forefinger touching the cap beak, slightly to the right of the right eye. Hold the salute until the officer has returned or acknowledged it, then bring your hand smartly to your side.
Salute all officers, men and women, of all U.S. services and all allied foreign services.
When chief or senior chief petty officers perform duties normally assigned to an officer- such as standing JOOD watches or taking a division muster- they rate the same salute as an officer.
b. Saluting the Ensign
Each person in the naval service, upon coming on board a ship of the Navy, shall salute the national ensign. He shall stop on reaching the upper platforms of the accommodation ladder, or the shipboard end of the brow, face the national ensign, and render the salute, after which he shall salute the officer of the deck. On leaving the ship, he shall render the salutes in inverse order. The officer of the deck shall return both salutes in each case.
When passed by or passing the national ensign being carried, uncased, in a military formation, all persons in the naval service shall salute. Persons in vehicles or boats shall also be rendered to foreign national ensigns and aboard foreign men-of-war.
c. Dipping the Ensign
Merchant ships "salute" Navy ships by dipping their ensigns. When a merchant ship of any nation formally recognized by the U.S. salutes a ship of the U.S. Navy, it lowers its national colors to half-mast. The Navy ship, at its closest point of approach, lowers the ensign to half-mast for a few seconds, then closes it up, after which the merchant ship raises its own flag. If the salute is made when the ensign is not displayed, the Navy ship will hoist her colors, dip for the salute, close them up again, and then haul them down after a suitable interval. Naval vessels dip the ensign only to answer a salute; they never salute first.
d. Gun salute
In olden days it took as much as 20 minutes to load and fire a gun, so that a ship that fired her guns in salute did so as a friendly gesture, making herself powerless for the duration of the salute.
The gun salutes prescribed by Navy Regs are fired only by ships and stations designated by the Secretary of the Navy. A national salute of 21 guns is fired on Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, and Independence Day, and to honor the President of the United States and heads of foreign states. Salutes for naval officers are:
Admiral: 17 guns Vice Admiral: 15 guns Rear Admiral: 13 guns Commodore: 11 guns
Salutes are fired at intervals of 5 seconds, and always in odd numbers.
102.6 What three classes of naval vessels existed at the inception of the navy?
The cruisers of the 18th century. These cruisers were next in size, usually smaller than average ships-of-the-line and usually faster. They carried 28 to 44 guns.
The small sailing warships. These ships carried 10 to 20 guns.
102.7 Discuss the importance of the following conflicts as they relate to Manual History:
7-8 May 1942: Thanks to the breaking of the Japanese Navy code, the U.S. was alerted to a large Japanese force moving to the Coral Sea to seize Port Moresby on the soughwest coast of New Guinea. It was to be the first step of a planned invasion of Australia.
The Japanese operation centered around three aircraft carriers and dozens of troop transports, but the Americans met them with two carriers of their own.
On May 7, the Japanese planes sank two minor ships, while U.S. planes sank an isolated enemy carrier. The next day, both sides launched all their planes against the other. The aircraft passed each other unseen in the clouds, in the world's first carrier verses carrier battle. One Japanese carrier was damaged. The U.S. carrier Lexington was sunk, and the carrier Yorktown was damaged.
After this action, both sides withdrew. Although a tactical victory, Coral Sea was a strategic set-back for the Japanese who never again threatened Australia.
b. Voyage of the Great White FleetIn pre-World War I days, the Navy carried out its role as a diplomatic arm of the government. On December 16, 1907, the Great White Fleet left Hampton Roads, Virginia, for a round-the-world cruise to show the flag. The exercise demonstrated the strength of the U.S. Navy
c. Battle of NormandyThe Navy's most notable Atlantic action may have been its part in the June 6, 1944, invasion of Normandy-the largest amphibious operation in history. The greatest armada ever assembled carried out minesweeping, shore-bombardment, and amphibious operations and transported supplies and troops. Those operations enabled the Allies to complete D-Day landings successfully and eventually push on to Germany.
13-15 November 1942: After three days of bitter fighting, the Japanese naval forces retreated and U.S. Marines were able to secure the island of Guadalcanal. The Japanese lost 2 cruisers and 6 destroyers. The U.S.S. Juneau was involved in the battle. Navy policy was to place members of the same family on different ships, but the five Sullivan brothers,
f. Battle of Leyte GulfThe final blow to the Japanese navy came October 23, 1944. In a last-chance effort to salvage the Phillippines, the Japanese sent a naval force to Leyte Gulf to attack the U.S. Fleet. Their plan backfired and the operation was a complete failure-the deciding catastrophe for their navy. The loss of the Phillippines severed their empire, and the homeland was cut off from its main source of supply from the south. With the losses at Okinawa and Iwo Jima, the war in the Pacific was approaching its final days.
102.8 Discuss the conditions that led to the formation of the U.S. Navy.
102.9 State the qualities that characterize the Navy/Marine Corps team as instruments to support national policies.
102.10 State the three levels of war.
102.11 State the mission of Naval Logistics.
102.12 State the importance of planning to Naval Operations.
AZC(AW/NAC) Kimberly A. King