106: DECK FUNDAMENTALS
106.1 State the measuring standard for the following:
a. Line: Measured in circumference.
b. Wire rope: Measured in diameter.
106.2 Discuss the difference between three strand and double braid synthetic mooring line, with respect to the following:
a. Strength: Double braid is stronger than three strand.
b. Breaking characteristics: Double braid has higher breaking characteristics.
c. Durability: Double braid is more durable.
106.3 Explain the meaning of the following line-handling commands:
a. Hold: Secure the line so it doesn’t allow slippage.
b. Check: Let the line surge a little at a time to prevent the line from parting.
c. Ease: Let the line out smoothly but keeping it taught.
d. Slack: To allow a line to run out using hand over hand method keeping it out of the water.
e. Take-in: Bring the line onboard.
f. Cast-off: Remove the line from the bitt.
g. Avast: Hold the line, do not slack or heave around.
h. Heave around: Pull on the line.
106.4 Define the following:
a. Swing circle: Amount of chain released, distance hawspipe plus ships length.
b. Drag circle: Amount of chain released, distance hawspipe to pelorus.
106.5 Define the following terms as applied to small boats:
a. Sea painter: A line led well forward on the ship to a boat alongside.
b. Steady lines: Lines used to steady the boat during hoisting and lowering.
c. Manropes (monkey lines): A safety line made up with a series of overhand or figure eight knots evenly spaced to assist personnel climbing up and down.
106.6 Describe the purpose of the following as applied to ground tackle:
a. Bit: Make a lines fast that have been fairled through chocks.
b. Chock: Smooth surface which mooring lines are led to prevent them from chafing.
c. Cleat: Used for belaying a line or wire.
d. Bullnose: A hole in the bow used for being towed or mooring to a buoy.
e. Hawse pipe: Pipe where the anchor is hawsed.
f. Chain: Hold the ship in place when at anchorage.
g. Turnbuckle: Used on the stopper assembly to secure the anchor.
h. Gypsy head: Used to heave around on the lines and wires.
i. Capstan: Used to heave in on mooring lines and wires.
j. Detachable link: Used to connect links of chain together.
k. Chain marking: Lets you know how much chain you have out on deck.
l. Anchor: Used to hold ships position.
m. Chain stopper: Used to secure the chain and anchor.
n. Pelican hook: Part of the stopper that actually secures the chain.
o. Wildcat: Used for hoisting and controlled lowering of the anchor.
p. Anchor brake: Keeps the chain from paying out.
q. Anchor buoy: Identifies where anchor is when at anchor.
.7 Define the following as applied to marlinespike seamanship:
a. Hawser : Any heavy line or wire used for towing or mooring.
b. Line: Any rope that is not wire.
c. Wire: Rope made of metal, used in various ways.
d. Spring line Six strands of wire wrapped around a fiber core.
e. Small stuff: Line 1 ¾ or smaller.
f. Flemish: Line coiled flat and tight.
g. Coil: Make a circle with line and pile it on top of itself.
h. Fake: The act of disposing of line, wire, or chain by laying it out in long, flat bights, alongside the other.
i. Heaving lines: A line with a weight at one end, heaved across an intervening space for passing over a heavier line.
j. Monkey fist (heaving ball): The heavy end of the heaving line.
k. Marlin: Two strand left laid tarred hemp small stuff.
l. Bight: A loop of rope, line, or chain.
m. Bitter end: The end of a line.
n. Eye: Hole in the end of a line used for mooring.
o. Eye splice: Used to make an eye at the end of a line.
p. Long splice: Used to join two pieces of line with out changing its circumference.
q. Short splice: Used to join two pieces of line.
r. Marlinespike: Tapered steel tool used to open the strands of wire for splicing.
s. Fid: Wooden spike shaped tool used in splicing line.
t. Mousing: Wire wrapped around a hook used to strengthen and prevent the load from slipping off.
106.8 Discuss the purpose of the following line handing safety precautions:
a. Direction of line pull danger area: To keep people from being hit if line parts.
b. Safe distance from blocks, cleats, gypsy heads, capstans, etc. Far away as possible.
c. Removal of all loose objects (ie. rings, watches, keys, etc.): Prevent snagging and loss of appendages.
d. Whenever possible remain forward/inboard of lines and wires: Prevent from getting hurt.
e. LIne handling using the "hand-over-hand" rule: Prevent rope burns and snagging.
106.9 Define and discuss the following as applied to mooring:
a. Mooring line: Line used in tying up the ship.
b. Breast line: Line used in keeping ship from moving in and out.
c. Forward spring line: Keeps the ship from moving aft.
d. After spring line: Keeps the ship from moving forward.
e. Bow head line: Line that runs through the bullnose.
f. Stern line: Runs through stern chock and holds the stern in.
g. Storm line/wire: Extra line used in storms to add extra strength to the ship’s moore.
h. Tattletale line: Lets you know when the lines safe working load has been reached.
i. Round turn: Complete turn around a bitt.
j. Figure eight turn: Line put on bitts in a figure eight fashion to secure mooring line.
k. Dip the eye: Second eye is led through first eye and put on the bitt.
l. Single up: Putting out first line or bringing in second line.
m. Double up: Putting out second line.
n. Heavy strain: Line is tight and poping.
o. Moderate strain: To the point of just being taught.
p. Light strain: No strain on the line at all.
q. Frap: Wrapping mooring line snuggly with small stuff holding the lines together.
r. Rat guards: Circular metal disc lashed together.
s. Chafing gear: Canvas wrapped around the area of line where the rat guards is placed.
t. Rat-tail stopper: Line used to hold the mooring line while it is being secured to bitts.
u. Safe working load (swl): Where the line stretches to a certain point /any farther may cause injury.
106.10 Discuss the following terms in regard to replenishment at sea:
a. Underway replenishment(unrep): Means of transfering fuel, ammo, and supplies from one vessel to the next.
b. Vertical replenishment (vertrep): Same as above but done by the use of helo’s.
c. Connected replenishment (conrep): Two ship’s steam side by side fuel hoses and wire are used to transfer fuel, ammo, supplies, and personnel
106.11 Define the following in regards to replenishment operations:
a. Replenishment course: The responsibility of the otc to select a suitable course and speed taking into consideration the mission of the group and the condition of the sea.
b. Replenishment speed: About 12 knots.
c. Control ship: Usually the delivering ship
d. Approach ship: Receiving ship.
e. Delivery ship: The control ship.
f. Transfer station: Station which sends the product.
g. Receiving ship: Approach ship.
106.12 Discuss the use of the following during underway replenishment:
a. Inhaul/outhaul line: A line used to recover any piece of gear, such as a paravane or a trolley block/a line used to haul a piece of gear from a ship.
b. Messenger: Line used to get the span wire across to the ship.
c. Phone and distance line: Line sent to the other ship with phone line in the middle so communications can be established and tells the distance the ship’s are apart.
d. Riding line: Line used to hold the probe in place.
e. Tiedown: Used for securing things.
f. Easing outline: Line that is fairled through the eye of the weak link and secured to a cleat and is used to ease out the span wire till clear of the ship.
g. Span wire/highline: Wire that is tensioned and the fuel rig is sent over/wire that is tensioned and the cargo rigs are sent over.
h. Probe/robb coupling: Devices used to send fuel through.
i. Station-to-station phone line: Phone line sent over to other ship for comms from station to station.
106.13 Discuss the use of the following equipment in underway replenishment:
a. Winch: Mechanical device used to slack off heave in on saddle whips and span wire.
b. Bolo: Led weight attached to by shotline and heaved over to the receiving ship.
c. Line-throwing gun: Gun used to shoot shotline over.
d. Fair-lead block: Block that line passes through to give direction of pull.
e. Snatch block: Block that one side opens up to allow bight of line to be put on.
f. Contour lights: Gives deffinition of ship while approaches are made.
g. Saddle whips: Wire attached to the saddles.
h. Hose saddles: Device used to connect hoses and attached to a trolley.
i. Ram tensioner: Keeps the spanwire/highline tensioned.
j. Trolley: Device used to attach the saddle to wire and allows smooth movement.
k. Standard tension replenishment alongside method (STREAM): Replenishment conducted while wire is under tension.
l. Cargo drop reel: Takes the place of a sliding padeye used on ship’s that don’t have a sliding padeye.
m. Sliding pad eye: Device used for receiving cargo.
n. STREAM support leg: A carrier will usually use this type of rig.
o. End fitting: Fitting at the end of the span wire or whips or highline.
p. Star assembly: All tensioned wire rig with the highline and the inhaul and outhaul lines being tended by winches in the delivering ship.
q. Pendant receiving station: Used for connecting stream cargo transfer rigs.
r. Traveling surf: An all tensioned wire rig with highline, inhaul, and outhaul lines being tended by winches in the delivering ship.
s. Surf block:
t. Day/night station markers: Used to identify the stations products.
u. Replenishment checklist: List used to ensure all items are on station and station is ready to go.
v. STREAM transfer head:
w. Chem lites: Lights used to illuminate stations and fittings.
106.14 Explain the duties of the following replenishment personnel/hard hat colors:
a) Safety observer (station and bridge): Watches for safety violations. white with green cross.
b) Rig captain: Person in charge of station. Yellow.
c) Riggers: Responsible for rigging station. blue.
d) Signalman: Delivers signals to other ship. green.
e) Corpsman: On station for personnel casulty. white with red cross.
f) Gunner’s mate: Used to shoot shotline over. red.
g) Winch operator: Operates the winches. brown.
h) Phone taker: Communicates with bridge and other ship. green.
106.15 Discuss the meaning of whistle signals between the delivery and receiving stations.
(1) preparing to shoot shot line
(2) ready to receive shotline
(3) shooting shotline
106.16 Discuss the following flag hoist signals when displayed by the delivery and/or receiving ship:
a) romeo at the dip: steady on course and speed preparing to take you alongside/ready to come alongside.
b) romeo close up: ready for your approach/commencing approach.
c) romeo hauled down: when messenger is in hand/when messenger in hand.
d) prep at the dip: receiving ship only expect to dissengage in 15 min.
e) prep close up: replenishment completed.
f) prep hauled down: all lines clear.
g) bravo at the dip: temporarily ceased pumping/stopped receiving temporarily.
h) bravo close up: transfering/receiving.
i) bravo hauled down: unrep complete/unrep complete.
106.17 Discuss the differences between emergency and standard breakaway.
Same as standard just faster and no permission is asked from the bridge.
106.18 State the purpose of the following:
a) Special sea and anchor detail: Used for mooring or anchoring evolutions.
b) Plane guard: Lookout for planes to ensure they are safe.
c) Low visibility detail: Add to lookouts in area’s where visibility is bad.
d) Flight quarters: Set when ship wants to launch aircraft.
e) Restricted maneuvering: Used when ship is in close to land.
106.19 Discuss abandon ship procedures, including the following:
a) Who orders “abandon ship”: Commanding Officer.
b) Word to be passed: Bearing to land, distance, temperature of water, friendly or foe.
c) Actions of the crew: Grab co2 life jackets and proceed to abandon ship station.
d) Life boats: 2 LCPLS.
e) Life rafts: MK. 6, MOD 2, 25 man.
106.20 Explain how the following are used during the recovery of a “man over board”.
a. Life ring/buoy: Throw out as close to the man as possible.
b. Smoke float: Activate it and throw in the vicinity of the man.
c. Strobe light: Attached to the life ring and when in the water blinks.
d. Dead reckoning tracer (DRT): Scale dropped to 200:1 and is designed to keep track of man overboard.
106.21 State the three common types of “man-overboard” recovery.
106.22 Define the following emergency conditions:
a. Collision: An act or instance of colliding.
b. Aground: Resting or lodged on the bottom.
106.23 Define the following terms:
a. Advance/transfer: Distance the vessel moves in the direction of the original course from when the rudder is put over until the new course is reached. The distance the vessel moves perpendicular to the original course during the turn.
b. Pivot point: The point on the centerline between the bow and the center of gravity at which the ship appears to rotate on after the ship has assumed it’s drift angle in a turn.
c. Acceleration/deceleration: Tables derived from ownships tactical data to determine distance traveled by the ship at various speeds.
d. Turning circle: The path described by the pivot point of the vessel as it makes a turn of 360 degreeswith constant rudder and speed.
106.24 Define the following terms/acronyms:
a) True bearing: Based on a circle of degrees with true north 000 degrees.
b) Relative bearing: Circle drawn around the ship herself with bow 000 degrees.
c) DIW : Dead in the water.
d) Head on: When two power driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal or nearly reciprocal courses so as involve risk of collision.
e) Crossing: When two power driven vessels are crossing so as o involve risk of collision the vessel which has the other on her stbd shall keep out of the way and shall if circumstances of the case admit avoid crossing ahead of the other vessel.
f) Overtaking: A vessel deemed to be overtaking when coming up with another vessel from a direction more than 22.5 degrees abaft her beam.
g) Stand on: vessel with the right of way.
h) Give way: Vessel that has to alter course or reduce speed to allow other vessel to pass.
106.25 Describe the navigational lights shown under the following:
a. Underway: Port/stbd running lights, mast light, and stern light.
b. In-port, moored: Aircraft warning lights, and anchor light.
c. Engaged in special operations: Red over white over red.
d. Man overboard: Two blinking red lights on the yardarm.
e. Not under command: Red over red.
f. Anchored: Aircraft warning light. anchor light
106.26 Describe the various low visibility sound signals and what they indicate.
1 prolonged blast not exceeding 2 minutes when underway. Bell or gong when at anchor. Rapid bell 5 seconds followed by gong and repeated each minute.
106.27 Discuss the following storm warning signals:
a. Gales: DAY- 2 red pennants, night white over red. winds that are 39 to 54 mph.
b. Storms: DAY- Red flag with black square center, night red over red. winds 55 to 73 mph.
c. Hurricanes/typhoons: DAY-2 red flags with black square center, night red over white over red. winds 74+ mph.
d. Small craft: DAY- 1 red pennant, night red over white. wind 38 mph sea conditions dangerous for small craft.
106.28 Discuss the following equipment used in ship handling/navigation:
a. Binoculars: Magnified glasses used for lookouts.
b. Stadimeter: Measures the distance of an object of known height such as a mast.
c. Sextant: Precision instrument that can measure angles in degrees, minutes, seconds.
d. Chronometer: Highly accurate clock.
e. Bearing circle: Metal ring that fits over a compass bowl.
f. Telescopic alidade: Telescope equipped with cross hairs, level vial, polarizing light filter and internal Focusing.
g. Parallel motion protractor (PMP): An instrument consisting of a protractor so that the movement of the arms is everywhere parallel.
h. Parallel rulers: An instrument for transferring a line parallel to itself. consists of two parallel rulers connected.
i. Chart: Show ocean areas and shorelines used to navigate the open waters.
j. Gyrocompass: Used for keeping the ship on course.
k. Magnetic compass: Secondary course in case the gyro goes down.
l. RADAR: Means for detecting and approaching targets in warfare.
m. Fathomether: Determines the depth of water the ship is in.
n. Satellite navigation (SATNAV): An artificial satellite used in a system which determines positions based upon signals received from the satellite.
o. Global positioning system (GPS): System which provides highly accurate positions and velocity information in 3 dimensions and precise time and time interval on as global basis continously.
106.29 Define the following navigational terms/acronyms:
a. LOP: Line of position. A plotted line on which a vessel is located.
b. EP: Estimated position. The most probable position of a craft determined from incomplete data or data of questionable accuracy.
c. Fix: A position that has been accurately established. common intersection of two or more lop’s obtained from simultaneous observations.
d. Latitude: Angular distance measured northward or southward through 90 degrees from the equator.
e. Longitude: Angular distance between the prime meridian and the meridian of a point on earth measured eastward or westward.
f. DR: Dead reckoning is a method of navigation in which position is determined by plotting the direction and distance traveled from a known point of departure.
g. Set/drift: Refers to the currents & ship’s direction/ refers to the currents & ship’s speed.
h. GMT/Coordinated universal standard time: Greenwich mean time, zulu time.
i. Time zones: An area in all parts of which the same time is kept 22 time zones, a thru z except “j”.
j. Variation/deviation: Difference between geographic north and magnetic north/error caused by the magnetic effect of any metal near the compass.
k. Iala (a/b) buoyage system: A red buoy to port entering. b-red to stbd entering.
l. Cardinal system: Used in conjunction with the compass to indicate where the mariner may find the best navigable water.
106.30 Discuss the different methods of attaining a ship’s position.
106.31 Discuss the purpose of dead reckoning (DR).
Determining the position of a vessel by adding to the last fix the ship’s course and speed for a given time.
106.32 Describe the purpose of range/channel markings.
Determine his position relative to the track by evaluating the alignment of the markers forming the range.
106.33 Explain the duties of the following bridge watch personnel:
a. Officer of the deck (OOD): Responsible for the ship and to the Commanding officer.
b. Conning officer: Gives the orders to the helm/leehelm and responsible to the ood.
c. Boatswain’s mate of the watch (BMOW): Responsible for the watch team.
d. Helmsman/lee helmsman: Steer the ship/ makes changes as ordered to the eot.
e. Lookouts: Scan the surface and air for contacts and reports any contacts to the ood on the bridge.
f. Quartermaster of the watch (QMOW): Plots the courses and takes fixes as needed.
106.34 Explain the purpose of the following:
a. Barometer: An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.
b. Psychrometer: An instrument used for determining atmospheric humidity consisting of dry-bulb and wet-bulb thermometers.
c. Voice tubes: Tubes that run from one watch station to the other where you talk in to it so you can talk to another station.
d. JX/JL circuits: JX circuts are used for battle and jl circuts are lookout comms.
e. Bull horn: Used to make the voice louder and legible.
f. Telltale panel: Panel which indicates ship’s running light configuiration, also indicates whether running lights are on primary or secondary filaments, using red, amber and buzzer modes.
Contact: AZC(AW/NAC) Kimberly King