KING'S NUCLEAR WEAPONS FASCINATING FACTS
Updated: 4 January 2018
Since 1945 there have been more than 2,000 test nuclear explosions conducted throughout the world.
Only North Korea has tested a nuclear weapon in the 21st century.
In 1957, Operation Plumbbob, conducted a total of 29 nuclear tests in Nevada. These tests exposed soldiers to
nuclear radiation. Some were in trenches, some stood. Some reported seeing the bones of their fingers through their hands
which were used to shield their eyes during the blast. Many were ordered to "march forward" after the blast.
Of these soldiers, thyroid cancer and leukemia skyrocketed.
(Please note: The government will compensate you if you qualify as an Atomic Veteran).
Nuclear Detonation On The Moon?
In 1958, a plan known as A119, was devised during the Cold War to intimidate Russia. The goal was to detonate a nuclear
device on the moon where the blast could be seen from earth. This project never came about. Of note that the famous scientist
Dr. Carl Sagan was a member of the staff.
Number of Nuclear Weapons In The World:
In 1953, when Eisenhower was President, the United States had 1,000 nuclear weapons.
In 1961 when Eisenhower left office, we had 18,000 nuclear weapons.
In 1985 there were approximately 60,000 nuclear weapons in the world. Today there are approximately 15,000.
Of those weapons, most have about 80 times more destructive power as the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
As of today, the United States has approximately 7,300 warheads
Russia - 8,000
China - 250
France - 300
U.K. - 225
Isreal, Pakistan, India and North Korea are not signatories or
(have nuclear weapons, but not part of the) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Treaty members agree to limit the spread of nuclear weapons.
Their warhead arsonel is as follows:
Isreal approximately 80 warheads
Pakistan - 120
India - 110
North Korea possibly 6 to 8.
Explosive Power and the Manhatten Project Facts:
Atomic bombs use nuclear fission, or the splitting of an atom, to achieve their enormous explosive power.
In the 1940's, Manhatten housed thousands of pounds of uranium. At 270 Broadway, approximately 5,000 employees worked on the project.
Seven hundred scientists worked on the project at Columbia University. But the project got too big and moved to
Hanford, Washington, Los Alamos, NM and Oakridge, TN.
The real goal of the Manhatten Project was to outrace the Germans in the development of a super weapon or bomb.
But Germany surrendered before the first atomic test was conducted, so the emphasis shifted to ending the war with Japan.
First Atomic Test Facts:
Code named "Trinity", the first atomic bomb test was conducted on 16 July 1945.
It was delayed by 90 minutes due to a thunderstorm in the area.
It was feared that rain, from the storm, may spread the fallout radiation. And also feared that lightning may detonate the device.
A woman who saw the blast 100 miles away, was blinded.
It was feared that the bomb may be a dud or that it may blow up the entire world.
The blast had the explosive power of 20,000 tons of TNT and exceeded expectations by four times.
Strange Benefit From The Atomic Blasts
Two isotopes were created in the atomic blasts in 1945. They are Strontium 90 and Cesium 137.
The two isotopes are used to prove if a painting is a forgery or authentic.
If the isotopes are present in the paint, the painting is a forgery as the isotopes did not exist until they were created in the atomic blasts.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Facts:
Approximately 230,000 people, died in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki blasts in Japan.
The bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, in 1945 was an atomic bomb
which killed over 140,000 people, and had the power of 15-Kilotons.
A common hydrogen bomb, which uses nuclear fusion, or the fusing of atoms,
has the power of up to 10-Megatons.
To achieve fusion, an atomic bomb is at the center of a common Hydrogen bomb,
creating immense heat used to fuse the atoms.
American Prisoners of War Killed In The Hiroshima Blast:
A little known fact is that about a dozen American prisoners of war also died in the blasts.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki were picked as targets for the Atom bomb drop
because they did not have any POW prisons.
The United States wanted to take out the one remaining large Japanese warships
that were in port at Kure Naval Arsenal and nearby ports.
The U.S. Third Fleet attacked these ports on July 24th, 25th and 28th.
These attacks led to the destruction of the aircraft carrier, Amagi.
They also destroyed 3 battleships, the Hyuga, Ise, and the Haruna as well as
5 cruisers and several smaller warships.
On July 28th, a raid of 79 B-24, Liberators, were sent to destroy the battleship, Haruna.
Two of the B-24's were shot down.
One of the B-24's, the "Lonesome Lady", was piloted by 1st LT Tom Cartwright.
He and his crew bailed out near Hiroshima.
Several were captured and taken to a military detention center in Hiroshima.
Cartwright would later recall that air crew members were briefed to tell the truth,
if captured, as our government felt the Japanese already knew what was unfolding.
Rather than suffer torture, they were instructed to truthfully tell their captors
of their mission. But the interrogator who interviewed Cartwright felt he was lying,
and he was sent to Imperial General Headquarters, in Tokyo, for further questioning.
Lt Cartwright was in Tokyo when the bomb fell on Hiroshima.
His crew members were still in Hiroshima.
The main target the morning of the bombing of Hiroshima, was the Aioi bridge.
The crew were being held in a detention center about a half-mile from the bridge.
The Lonesome Lady crew were there with two other aircrew members, from the Taloa,
the other B-24 which had also been shot down.
The walls of the detention center were solid brick and survived the initial blast of the bomb.
Three of the Americans, Norman Brissette and Ralph Neal,
and possibly Hugh Atkinson, survived the blast.
Brissette was an aircrewman on a torpedo bomber (photo right)
with his pilot, Lt Raymond Porter.
Their plane had been hit by anti-aircraft fire, and they ditched the plane shortly after.
They survived but were later picked up by the Japanese and taken, with the other aircrew members, to Chugoku Military Police Headquarters as there were no POW camps in the area.
Neal, Brissette and possibly Atkinson escaped the blast and jumped into a cesspool,
nose deep, to escape the raging flames caused by the bomb.
Upon leaving the cesspool, they were quickly recaptured and sent back to the detention center. All were badly burned and suffered from gamma ray radiation poisoning.
The third, whose identity is not certain, was used as a scapegoat. He was described by one watching as "the most handsome boy I ever saw".
It was reported that an American was tied to a pole on the Aioi bridge,
and a sign placed around his neck reading,
"Beat this American soldier before you pass", where he was beaten to death.
Drawings done by local citizens long after the bombing, show the soldier. Several other drawings show more than one soldier tortured at Hirsohima.
Brissette and Neal would later died of radiation poisoning.
They were seen by other POW's and were vomiting bile violently.
Suffering so badly, they asked their fellow soldiers to shoot them but none had any weapons.
They were given as much morphine as the other POW soldiers had until it was all gone.
They both died within hours of one another.
The drawing below is of them after capture.
These accounts are known as both men gave their fellow surviving soldiers
notes to be given to their relatives back home.
Below are the names and photos of the brave men who gave their lives
to end this terrible war in Hiroshima.
It should be noted that the bombing campaign of 24, 25 and 28 July 1945
resulted in the loss of 102 aircrewmen besides these listed below
who died in Hiroshima.
S/SGT Julius Molnar
Rear Turret Gunner; on the B-24, Taloa
U.S. Army Air Corps
Killed in the blast
Born in 1924; From Kalamazoo, Michigan
He was a baker before the war; 20 years old
SGT Hugh Henry Atkinson
Wireless Radio Operator; B-24, Lonesome Lady
U.S. Army Air Corps
Possibly survived the blast only to be taken to a nearby bridge by enraged
citizens and beaten to death. Not confirmed but rumored.
From Seattle, Washington; 26 years old
S/SGT Charles O. Baumgartner
Lower Ball Turret Gunner; B-24 Taloa
U.S. Army Air Corps
Taken prisoner and held at Chugoku Military Police headquarters; Hiroshima
From Sebring, Mahoning, Ohio; 29 years old
SGT Buford J. Ellison
Flight Engineer; B-24, Lonesome Lady
U.S. Army Air Corps
Taken prisoner and held at Chugoku Military Police headquarters; Hiroshima
From Abilene, Texas; 22 years old
CPL John A. Long, Jr.
Nose Gunner; B-24, Lonesome Lady
U.S. Army Air Corps
From New Castle, Pennsylvania ; 27 years old
2nd LT Durden William Looper
Co-Pilot; B-24, Lonesome Lady
U.S. Army Air Corps
POW held at Chugoku Military Police headquarters; Hiroshima; killed in the blast
From Sebastian Co, Arkansas; 22 years old
2nd LT James M. Ryan
Bombardier; B-24, Lonesome Lady
U.S. Army Air Corps
From New York; 20 years old
LT/JG Raymond Porter
Pilot with Bombing Squadron VB87
flying the SB2C Helldiver onboard the USS Ticonderoga
Shot down, adrift 2 days then taken prisoner and held at
Chugoku Military Police headquarters; Hiroshima
with his radioman, Norman Brissett.
Died of radiation poisoning in agony. From Butler, Pennsylvania; 23 years old
ARM3c (Aviation Radioman 3rd Class) Norman Roland Brissett
Aircrew radioman with Bombing Squadron VB87
flying SB2C Helldiver bombers.
Shot down and crashed near Kure Harbor, near Hiroshima
Was held 750 meters from the explosion's epicenter at Hiroshima Castle.
Died of radiation poisoning in agony.
Note: He is known as the only Naval Combat Aircrewman killed in nuclear combat.
From Lowell, Massachusetts; 19 years old
S/SGT Ralph J. Neal
Ball Turret Gunner; B-24 Lonesome LadyU.S. Army Air Forces
Died of radiation poisoning in agony, wounds from parachuting out of the plane
or possibly executed on the Aioi Bridge, Hiroshima
From Whitley County, Kentucky; 23 years old
Ensign John Joseph Hantschel
Fighter Pilot assigned to VF16
flying the F6F-5 Hellcat onboard the USS Randolph (CV-15)
He was shot down near the Inland Sea of Western Honshu, Japan
and drifted 4 days until he was picked up by a fisherman
He was taken prisoner and held at Chugoku Military Police headquarters; Hiroshima
which was 1,300 feet from ground zero.
It is believed he died in the blast.
From Appleton, Wisconsin; 23 years old
Click Here to read more about these hero's of World War II
and all they gave on our behalf.
Click on the link above to view Paper Lanterns.
A documentary on these brave American soldiers and the loyal effort of a caring Japanese
Hiroshima survivor's efforts to find the families of the lost soldiers.
The Man Known To Have Been Bombed Twice
One man lived through both the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs. His name was Tsutomu Yamaguch (1916-2010).
In Hiroshima, he was preparing to go home from a business trip when the first bomb fell. He was less than 2 miles from where the bomb exploded.
He had ducked into a ditch but the bomb sucked him up and threw him into a potato field. He was burned on the face and his ear drums ruptured.
He returned to Nagasaki, his home, where he was burned so badly his family and doctor, a friend, did not recognize him.
Despite the burns, he dragged himself out of bed and reported for work. He was explaining what had happened to him, when the second bomb exploded.
It blew his bandages off but due to a reinforced stairway and the hilly terrain, he survived yet again.
His wife, who had gone out for burn ointment with their child, survived as she had taken shelter in a tunnel.
Yamaguch survived both bombs, but had serious radiation poisoning. He would later recover and became a translator for the U.S. Armed Forces
during their occupation of Japan.
In all, about 165 people did experience both attacks but the Japanese government only recognized Yamaguch
as the "nijyuu hibakusha" or the "twice-bombed person. Yamaguch lived to the age of 93.
All the explosions in World War II combined totaled "only" 2-Megatons
or just 20% of the power of just one common Hydrogen bomb.
However, a nuclear bomb could easily fit into the back of a truck.
Two Near Nuclear Accidents of Note:
At 3 a.m. on 9 November 1979, President Carter got a call that our early warning system detected an attack. It noted that we had
about 7 minutes to respond. The computer showed 250 missiles on their way to the United States. Then NORAD said that 2,200 had been launched.
The error was found when a technician had accidentally put in a sample attack in the computer by mistake.
Four years later, in 1983, the Russians had a similar situation. On call then was Stanislav Petrov.
Petrov was the lieutenant colonel of the Soviet Air Defense Forces. Petrov was on duty when the computer noted
that 5 missiles were on their way to the Soviet Union. Protocol would dictate that Petrov contact his superiors immediately but fearing it may be a mistake
he paused to figure out if the computer was making a mistake. It had made a mistake and Petrov was later called the
"man who single-handedly saved the world from nuclear war".
Project Dead Hand:
Project Dead Hand was a computer program considered for use by Russia.
It was thought that a computer could launch nuclear weapons at the enemy, should all humans be killed.
The program was considered too dangerous and never used.
The Nuclear Football:
The "Nuclear Football" is really 3 briefcases with a series of codes. The codes are used to identify the President's identify and
NOT to launch a nuclear attack. The military alone has the codes for a launch.
There are 3 Nuclear Footballs. One goes with the President at all times.
One is with the Vice President and one is at the White House.
The President carries what is called a "Biscuit Card". This has the instructions and further codes
which give access to the Nuclear Football. It also lists a set of targets and/or attack plans.
This system was first devised by John F. Kennedy and his administration.
The Future of Nuclear Weapons:
It is "hoped"... hoped... that by the year 2020 the world has less than 8,000 nuclear weapons!
* August 9, 1945: 21-Kiloton Plutonium bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.
The Largest Nuclear Bomb Ever Detonated or Created
* October 30, 1961: Soviet Union detonates a 50-Megaton Uranimu bomb.
This bomb nicknamed the "Tsar Bomba" or "King of Bombs"
would be the largest nuclear weapon ever detonated.
The detonation occurred over the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya.
The explosive impact of this device was 6,500 times more deadly than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
This bomb had the equivalent of 3,800 atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima.
The test was so dangerous, the Russian pilots were given only a 50% chance of survival.
The bomb weighed 59,500 lbs and was 26 feet long by about 6 feet wide.
The bomb had an 1,763 lb parachute, buying time for the pilots to fly about 28 miles away before detonation.
It was dropped from an altitude of 6.5 miles and detonated at 13,000 feet.
The ensuing fireball could be seen from 640 miles or 1000 kilometers away.
The mushroom cloud was 40 miles high and reached the mesosphere.
All buildings in a small village 34 miles away were completely destroyed.
Heat from the explosion could have caused 3rd degree burns 64 miles away.
Light from the explosion was visible from 1000 km, or 621 miles, away.
The bomb was never intended for actual use. Rather it was used to intimidate the United States.
Because of it's huge size and weight, it could not be put on an intercontinental missile for delivery.
The bomb proved that the delivery of nuclear weapons by long range aircraft was inefficient in time war.
As a result, Intercontinential Ballistic Missiles were created.
- Most structures destroyed out to 0.15 miles of the blast area.
- Approxmiately 50% dead from radiation within one month's time out to 0.3 miles.
- Massive fires out to 0.07 miles.
Atomic Bomb; 15-Kiloton bomb.
- Most structures destroyed out to 0.8 miles of the blast area.
- Approximately 50% dead from radiation within one month's time out to 0.8 miles.
- Massive fires out to 0.9 miles. Possible fires out to 1.2 miles.
Hydrogen Bomb; 300-Kilotons
- Most structures destroyed out to 2.2 miles from the blast area.
- Approxmiately 50% dead from radiation within 1.3 miles in one month's time.
- Massive fires out to 3.5 miles; Possible fires out to 4.6 miles from blast area.
The "Duck and Cover" drills some of us learned in school are still considered a good protection in the event
of a nuclear blast, especially against flying glass or debris.
It is recommended that an average family put away approximately 7 days
worth of food and water including radios (battery or wind up solar ones are great), flashlights and any prescriptions
you may take. Additional supplies to consider may be medical or first aid supplies, pet food and a disaster plan
in your neighborhood.
You will get a warning! This was evidenced by the recent false alarm alerts in Hawaii.
If North Korea were to launch an intercontinental ballistic missile, or ICBM, at the United States
it would take approximately 90 minutes to get here. This missile would spend a great deal of it's travel time
high in the atmosphere where the military would try to knock it out of the sky via the
Ground Based Midcourse Defense System, or GMD. In 2004, 10 tests of this system were conducted.
The results were not completely promising with 6 of the 10 test devices being destroyed by the system.
This was several years ago and we hope the system has been improved by now. Almost certain that it has.
If the United States were to order a missile strike as a defensive measure, it would take
approximately 5 minutes from the time the order was given, for the missiles to be launched.
When the alerts come, over TV, phones, radio, siren, loudspeakers and other means,
you should seek shelter in the strongest place possible. Cellars, basements, heavy concrete walls, or designated shelters are preferred.
The typical blast radius is approximately 1 mile. Most in that mile radius will be killed almost immediately.
In the 2-3 mile range from the blast, there will be significant damage.
If you are still outside during an impact or within about 15 minutes of impact, hopefully you can seek shelter.
You have approximately 10 to 15 minutes before radioactive particles begin to rain down. These will induce radiation poisoning.
The poisoning will cause vomiting, burns, blisters as the particles tear apart any cells they come in contact with.
Gamma radiation is one of 3 types of radioactivity formed in a nuclear blast. They are electromagnetic radiation
similar to x-rays and they are the most energetic form of radiation.
The other forms are Alpha particles, which as it's name indicates, is a "particle". These "particles" of Alpha radiation do not penetrate
very far and are typically stopped at the first layer of your skin's surface.
Beta "particles" are also parts of an atom. Hence the term 'particle'.
They are stopped by a few layers of clothing.
But Gamma rays or radiation are energy and not stopped easily. If exposed, the radiation will tear right
through your body, damaging or destroying all cells in it's path. This is the true danger of being exposed
to radiation of this type.
If you are exposed to any type of radiation, it is recommended that you take off all contaminated clothing
and brush the particles off especially from your hair. Then shower off if possible.
After about an hour, radiation levels will decrease rapidly and nearly half the power will be gone.
Remain in a shelter, and continue to monitor any updates. The announcements may indicate yet
another missile attack coming.
If you are outdoors do NOT look at the blast. This could severely damage your eyes as this is known to have
happened in the Japanese blasts.
Your first priority in a blast is to limit your exposure as much as possible. So get very low in the shelter
you are in. And do not rush, at all, to go outside. Time is your friend so stay inside for a minimum of at least 24 hours.
The website Ready Gov has lots of information on disaster plans and preparedness.
In a study in 2005, it was concluded that the economic cost of one atomic bomb detonating near or over
New York City would have a $10 trillion impact on our country .
Truly, let's pray that none of this ever happens to our country or anyone. It would change the
entire world and not for the better.
December 7th, 1941:
Army General L. Groves is named as director for the Manhattan Project.
The Manhattan Project was a secret U.S. project to build an atomic bomb.
Robert Oppenheimer (photo below) is recruited as the project's science director.
A self-controlled sustaining nuclear reaction is achieved at the University of Chicago.
August 6, 1945:
August 9, 1945:
The United States tests it's first Hydrogen bomb at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands.
The bomb is nick-named, Mike. (Photo below).
Robert Oppenheimer's famous quote about the development of the atom bomb was given during an interview about the Trinity explosion.
It was first broadcast as part of a television documentary called, The Decision To Drop The Bomb and run on NBC.
Quote: "We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed; a few people cried; most people were silent.
I remembered a line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad-Gita. Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince
that he should do his duty and to "impress him" takes on his multi-armed form and says,
"Now I am become Death; the destroyer of worlds".
I suppose we all thought that, one way or another."
Pakistan conducts nuclear tests in response to India's tests.
Iran is reported to be secretly building 2 nuclear facilities.
An inspection by the International Atomic Energy Agency reveals that there has been a program there to develop uranium enrichment.
2017 and 2018:
Threats continue from North Korea
This website was designed and researched to aid you in understanding what Atomic bombs and Nuclear weapons really are.
If they are ever used by one nation against another, our entire existence will change.
Over the years, I have seen people build bomb shelters, and prepare for the worst. And I do worry about an 'accidental war' caused by some
error as these have happened many times over the years.
Or another Hitler?
Pray for peace and read your Bible. May God bless you!
Radiation and It's Effects
Are You An Atomic Veteran?
King's Core Enlisted Aviation Warfare Specialist (EAWS) Tutorial
AZC(AW/NAC) Kimberly King
United States Navy