102: FIRST AID FUNDAMENTALS
102.1 State the three objectives of first aid.
Save life, prevent further injury, and prevent infection.
102.2 State the methods of controlling bleeding.
1. Direct pressure
3. Pressure points
4. Tourniquet (as a last resort)
102.3 Identify an example of a pressure point.
Bleeding can often be temporarily controlled by applying hand pressure to the
appropriate pressure point. A pressure point is a place where a main artery to the
injured part lies near the skin surface and over a bone. Apply pressure to this point
with the fingers or with the heel of the hand.
There are 11 principal points on each side of the body.
Superficial temporal artery.....temple
Subclavian artery.....collar bone
Common carotid artery.......neck
Brachial artery......inner upper arm
Brachial artery......inner elbow
Femoral artery.....upper thigh
Anterior/posterior tibial artery.....ankle
102.4 Describe the symptoms and treatment for shock.
Shock is a disruption of the circulatory system. Symptoms include vacant or lackluster
eyes, shallow or irregular breathing, cold, pale skin, nausea, and weak or absent pulse.
Individuals usually faint do to the poor supply of oxygen to the brain.
Treatment is to lay the victim down with the feet elevated 6-12 inches. Cover them to
maintain body heat. Reassure and calm the victim, if conscious.
102.5 Describe the three classifications of burns.
First degree - mildest, producing redness, increased warmth, tenderness and mild pain.
Second degree - red and blistered skin; severe pain.
Third degree - destroyed tissue, skin and bone in severe cases. Severe pain may be
absent due to nerve endings being destroyed.
102.6 State the symptoms and treatment for the following heat related injuries:
a. Heat exhaustion
In heat exhaustion there is a serious disturbance of blood flow to the brain, heart
and lungs. The skin is cool, moist, and clammy ad the pupils dilated and normal or
subnormal body temperature. Usually the victim is sweating profusely.
Treatment: Move the victim to a cool or air conditioned area; loosen clothing;
apply cool wet cloths to the head, groin, and ankles; fan the victim; do not allow the
victim to become chilled; if the victim is conscious, give a solution of one teaspoon
salt dissolved in a liter of cool water and transport to a medical facility.
b. Heat stroke
A very serious condition caused by a breakdown of the sweating mechanism of the body.
The victim is unable to eliminate excessive body heat build up. Symptoms may include hot and/or dry skin,
uneven pupil dilation, and a weak, rapid pulse.
Treatment: Reduce the heat immediately by dousing the body with cold water. Apply wet,
cold towels to the body and move the victim to the coolest possible place. Maintain an
open airway. Place the victim on his/her back with shoulders raised slightly. Place
cold packs or towels around the victim's shoulders and neck. Place additional cold
packs on the ankles and groin area. Use a fan if available. A cold water bath is
102.7 State the difference between an "open" and "closed" fracture.
A "closed" or "simple" fracture is one which is entirely internal, that is, the bone is broken, but there is no break in the skin.
An "open" or "compound" fracture is one in which there is an open wound in the tissue or skin. The bone may be protruding thru the skin.
102.8 State the following as applied to electric shock:
a. Personnel rescue
The rescue of a person who has received an electric shock is likely to be difficult and dangerous. Extreme caution must be used, or the rescurer may also be electrocuted. YOU MUST NOT TOUCH THE VICTIM'S BODY, WIRE, OR ANY OTHER OBJECT THAT MAY BE CONDUCTING ELECTRICITY. Look for the switch, first, and turn off the current immediately.
If you cannot find the switch, try to remove the wire from the victim with a dry broom, handle, branch, pole, oar, board or other non-conducting object. It may be possible to use a dry rope or dry clothing to pull the wire away from the victim.
Administer artificial ventilation immediately after freeing the person from the wire if the electric shock caused breathing to stop. Check the pulse since electric shock may cause the heart to stop. If you feel no pulse start CPR immediately. Get the victim to a medical facility immediately.
102.9 Describe the methods for clearing an obstructed airway.
Obstruction in the upper airway or throat is often caused by attempting to chew food and talk at the same time. One of the most reliable indications of an airway obstruction is the victim's inability to talk. Other indicators include grasping and pointing to the throat, exaggerated breathing efforts, and the skin turning a bluish color. Your first action upon encountering a victim with this problem is to clear the mouth of any food particles, foreign objects, or loose dentures. If not effective use one of the following methods:
Stand behind the victim and wrap your arms around the victim's waist. Grasp your wrist and place the thumb side of your fist against the victim's abdomen, above the navel and just below the rib cage. Give 4 quick upward thrusts to the victim. (It is recommended 4 thrusts by the American Heart Association and 5 recommended by the American Red Cross). The obstruction should pop out like a cork. If unsuccsssful, repeat until the obstruction is dislodged.
Reclining Abdominal thrusts are used if the victim is laying down. Position yourself for the thrust by either straddling the victim at the hips, straddling one leg, or kneeling at the hips. Place your hands one on top of the other in the area between the lower end of the sternum (breast bone) and the navel, and give 4 quick upward thrusts into the abdomen. (5 thrusts recommended by American Red Cross and 4 thrusts recommended by American Heart Assoc.)
102.10 Describe the effects of the following cold weather injuries:
A general cooling of the whole body caused by exposure to low or rapidly falling temperature, cold moisture, snow or ice. The victim may appear pale and unconscious, and may even be taken for dead. Breathing is slow and shallow, pulse faint or even undetectable. The body tissues feel semi-rigid, and the arms and legs may feel stiff.
First aid consists of bringing the body temperature to normal. The patient should be wrapped in warm blankets in a warm room. Do not give him hot drinks or other stimulants until he has regained consciousness. Get medical attention immediately.
b. Superficial frostbite
Ice crystals forming in the upper skin layers after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.
c. Deep frostbite
Ice crystals forming in the deeper tissues after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.
Treatment is to get the victim indoors, rewarm the area by placing them in warm water or with hot water bottles. Other methods include placing them under the armpits, against the abdomen, or between the legs of a buddy. Never rub the frostbite area. Seek medical attention immediately.
For questions or comments contact:
AZC(AW/NAC) Kimberly King
Other EAWS Links:
King's Core EAWS Tutorial