105: NAVAL AVIATION HERITAGE AND DOCTRINE FUNDAMENTALS
105.1 State the six areas of naval doctrine.
1. Naval Warfare, describes the inherent nature and enduring principles of naval forces.
105.2 Discuss how naval aviation supports the following warfare areas:
2. Naval Intelligence, points the way for intelligence support in meeting the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.
3. Naval Operations, develops doctrine to reaffirm the foundation of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expeditionary maritime traditions.
4. Naval Logistics, addresses the full range of logistical capabilities that are essential in the support of naval forces.
5. Naval Planning, examines force planning and the relationship between our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational environment.
6. Naval Command and Control, provides the basic concepts to fulfill the information needs of commanders, forces, and weapon systems.
Reconnaissance and surveillance includes the search for and interception, recording, and analysis of radiated electromagnetic energy, used in support of military operations and tasks. Certain select commands serve as elements of the Worldwide Airborne Command Post System and provide relay services.
Used to locate and destroy submarines.
c. Amphibious Assault
An amphibious assault involves the taking of an area of land where the land and sea meet. This may include the landing of troops and equipment. Aircraft provide bombardment by missiles, bombs, and other ordnance. Helicopters may be employed to transport troops and their equipment to be moved from the ship to the shore.
d. Logistics Support
Involves the transport of troops, personnel, and cargo or equipment where needed by the military.
e. Search and Rescue
Naval aircraft and helicopters may be assigned to search and rescue of downed, stranded, or disabled military personnel either by land or sea. They provide search data and surveillance of an area where the rescue is to take place. Helicopters or aircraft may provide the actual rescue actions required once the member in need is identified. These may include rescue by a rescue swimmer, litter rescue, helicopter hoist, etc.
f. Mine warfare
The use of ships, aircraft, submarines, and helicopters to locate and destroy enemy mines.
105.3 Discuss the conditions that led to the formation of the U.S. Navy.
The areas of our country that became the 13 original states were colonies of England in the mid-1700's. The king of England allowed the colonies to trade only with England. Problems arose between the colonists and England as the years passed. English Parliament passed several tax laws that affected the colonists in a problem known as "taxation without representation". The colonists formed Committes of Correspondence to communicate the problems to England. They convened a Continental Congress to discuss these problems. This first congress met in 5 September 1774.
At the meeting, the Congress produced a statement of rights it believed England should grant to the colonists. Then in October of 1774 the statement of rights was presented to the king.
A second Continential Congress convened on 10 May 1775. The colonists appointed George Washington as Commander in Chief of the Continential American army on 15 June 1775. The Continential Congress felt forced to act as the provisional government for the colonies. They issued money, established a postal service, and created a Continential navy.
The U.S. Navy has its birth on 13 October 1775. On this date the Second Continential Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels.
The first commander in chief was Esek Hopkins, who put the first squadron of the Continential Navy to sea in February 1776.
105.4 State the qualities that characterize the Navy/Marine Corps team as instruments to support national policies.
Naval forces have been organized for fighting at sea - or from the sea - for more than two thousand years. The qualities that characterize most modern naval forces as political instruments in support of national policies are the same as those that define the essence of our naval Services today. These qualities are readiness, flexibility, self-sustainability, and mobility. They permit naval forces to be expeditionary - that is, being able to establish and maintain a forward-based, stabilizing presence around the world. Naval expeditionary operations are offensive in nature, mounted by highly trained and well-equipped integrated task forces of the Navy and Marine Corps, organized to accomplish specific objectives. Naval expeditionary forces draw upon their readiness, flexibility, self-sustainability, and mobility to provide the National Command Authorities the tools they need to safeguard such vital national interests as the continued availability of oil from world producers and maintenance of political and economic stability around the globe.
Through these qualities, naval forces reassure allies and friends, deter aggressors, and influence uncommitted and unstable regimes.
105.5 State the three levels of war.
There are three levels: tactical, operational, and strategic - each increasingly broader in scope.
The concept of "levels of war" can help us visualize the relative contribution of military objectives toward achieving overall national goals and offer us a way to place in perspective the causes and effects of our specific objectives, planning, and actions.
Although the levels do not have precise boundaries, in general we can say that the tactical level involves the details of individual engagements.
The operational level concerns forces collectively in a theater; and the strategic level focuses on supporting national goals. World War II, for example, a strategic-level and global war, included operational-level combat in the Pacific theater consisting primarily of U.S. led maritime, air, and supporting allied land campaigns. Within each specific campaign were a series of important and often decisive battles.
At the tactical level, each contributed to the achievement of that campaign's objectives. The culmination of these campaign objectives resulted in overall victory in the Pacific theater.
105.6 Explain how Naval Intelligence Operations, more than any other service, support peace time operational decision making.
Intelligence is central to the decision making process. Proliferation of technology increases the complexity of joint battlespace information management, and compresses the time cycle for decisionmaking. Space systems rapidly collect and distribute large volumes of information. They also provide services that link widely separated forces and provide an important advantage to naval forces in all areas of the world.
Intelligence estimates, disseminated in a timely fashion, center on the focus of effort, identify critical vulnerabilities, and enhance combat effectiveness.
105.7 State the mission of Naval Logistics.
Sustained naval and joint operations are made possible by a logistic support system that has two major components: fleet-based sustainment assets and strategic sustainment assets.
Fleet-based sustainment assets include replenishment ships of the combat logistics force providing direct fleet support, combat service support units, mobile repair facilities, and advanced logistic support hubs.
Strategic sustainment is provided by air and sea assets that are shared by all Services. Successful global response to contingencies depends upon our ability to project and sustain U.S. forces in all theaters of operations.
Integrated support resources in the form of fleet-based sustainment assets and strategic assets provide naval expeditionary forces and joint and multinational forces the ability to operate in peacetime and in war wherever and whenever our national interests demand.
Our ability to move and sustain forces at great distances from our shores is critical to the forward presence component of our military strategy.
105.8 State the importance of planning to Naval Operations.
When military action is one of the potential responses to a situation threatening U.S. interests, a plan is prepared using either the joint deliberate-planning process or crisis-action procedures. Although military flexibility demands a capability to conduct short-notice crisis planning when necessary, U.S. military strength is best enhanced by deliberate peacetime analysis, planning, and exercises.
An operation plan is a commander's complete description of a concept of operation. It is based on the commander's preparation of the battlespace, a formal evaluation, supported by intelligence, that integrates enemy doctrine with such factors as physical and environmental conditions.
From this evaluation, the commander identifies the forces and support needed to execute the plan within a theater of operations. Naval forces operation plans are integrated into the complete inventory available to the Joint Force Commander. For execution, plans become operation orders. Operation plans include: the theater strategy or general concept and the organizational relationships; the logistics plan shows ways the force will be supported; and the deployment plan sequences the movement of the force and its logistical support into the theater.
Elements of planning that produce a concept of operations include the commander's estimate, deciding possible courses of action, preparation of the mission statement and it's execution strategy, situation analysis, and formulation of the commander's intent. These elements are applicable up, down, and across chains of command.
105.9 Discuss the importance of the following conflicts as they relate to naval aviation:
a. Coral Sea
7-8 May 1942: Thanks to the breaking of the Japanese Navy code, the U.S. was alerted to a large Japanese force moving to the Coral Sea to seize Port Moresby on the southwest coast of New Guinea. It was to be the first step of a planned invasion of Australia.
The Japanese operation centered around three aircraft carriers and dozens of troop transports, but the Americans met them with two carriers of their own. On May 7, the Japanese planes sank two minor ships, while U.S. planes sank an isolated enemy carrier.
The next day, both sides launched all their planes against the other. The aircraft passed each other unseen in the clouds, in the world's first carrier verses carrier battle. One Japanese carrier was damaged. The U.S. carrier Lexington was sunk, and the carrier Yorktown was damaged. After this action, both sides withdrew.
Although a tactical victory, Coral Sea was a strategic set-back for the Japanese who never again threatened Australia.
3-6 June 1942: Midway was the turning point of the Pacific war. The U.S. breaking of the Japanese naval code was again the key element as it had been at Coral Sea a month earlier. A huge Japanese armada of 160 warships was involved, but commander-in-chief Admiral Yamamoto split his force, sending some ships north to the Aleutian Islands in a diversionary attack. The Japanese retained superior numbers approaching Midway which included 4 aircraft carriers and 11 battleships.
At Midway the U.S. had 3 carriers and no battleships. The Americans knew what was coming because of the broken codes, and Admiral Nimitz positioned his 3 carriers, the Hornet, Enterprise, and Yorktown, out of Japanese reconnaissance range.
As the Japanese carriers launched their planes to assault the Midway defenses, the U.S. planes headed for the enemy carriers. It took attack after attack, but finally the U.S. crews got through and sank 3 Japanese carriers. The next day the fourth carrier was sunk. Japanese planes sank the Yorktown.
In one day Japan lost its bid for control of the Pacific.
13-15 November 1942: After three days of bitter fighting, the Japanese naval forces retreated and U.S. Marines were able to secure the island of Guadalcanal. The Japanese lost 2 cruisers and 6 destroyers.
The U.S.S. Juneau was involved in the battle. Navy policy was to place members of the same family on different ships, but the five Sullivan brothers,
from Waterloo, Iowa, insisted on staying together. An exception was made and they all became crewmen onboard the Juneau.
The Juneau was damaged during the battle in a close-range night encounter. As it limped off for repairs, it was torpedoed. The Sullivans along with 700 others were lost.
Because of this tragedy, Navy policy concerning family member separations was reinstated. A ship
was later named in their honor.
With the fall of the island, the southern Solomons came under Allied control and Australia was in less danger of attack.
105.10 Discuss the significance of 8 May 1911, as it applies to naval aviation.
Captain W. I. Chambers prepared requisitions for two Glenn Curtiss
biplanes. One, the Triad, was to be equipped for arising from or alighting on land or water; with a metal tipped propeller designed for a speed of at least 45 miles per hour; with provisions for carrying a passenger alongside the pilot; and with controls that could be operated by either the pilot or the passenger.
The machine thus described, later became the Navy's first airplane, the A-1.
Although these requisitions lacked the signature of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, necessary to direct the General Storekeeper to enter into a contract with the Curtiss Company, they did indicate Captain Chambers' decision as to which airplanes the Navy should purchase.
The planes were purchased for $5,500 each.
From this, May 8 has come to be considered the date upon which the Navy ordered its first airplane and has been officially proclaimed to be the birthday of naval aviation.
105.11 State the name of the first aircraft carrier.
20 March 1922: U.S.S. Langley.
The Jupiter, a former collier or coal-carrier, was recommissioned after conversion to the Navy's first carrier, the Langley (CV-1).
105.12 What was the first jet powered naval aircraft?
21 July 1946, FH-1 Phantom (Photo left)
The FH-1 was the first U.S. test of the adaptability of jet aircraft for shipboard operations. The first test flight of this was made by CDR James Davidson.
He made a successful take-off and landing from the deck of the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVB-42).
On 10 March 1948, the FJ-1 Fury made the Navy's first operational landings and takeoffs at sea onboard the USS Boxer (CV 21).
105.13 Who was the first naval aviator in space?
5 May 1961: Alan Shepard
Flew a 15-minute suborbital flight onboard the Mercury capsule, Freedom 7.
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