108.1 Explain the following terms as they pertain to Combat system missions:
a. Detect to engage:
This term is best described in the following scenario: Picture yourself as the TAO of a surface combatant. The relative quiet of CIC will generally be shattered by an alarm on the Electronic Warfare (EW) equipment indicates the initial detection and identification of a possible incoming threat by your Electronic Support Measures (ESM) equipment. The wideband ESM receiver detects an electromagnetic emission on a specific bearing. Almost instantaneously, the ESM equipment interprets the emitter’s parameters and compares them with radar parameters stored in its memory. The information and a symbol indicating the emitter’s approximate line of bearing from your ship are presented on a display screen. The commanding officer is notified of this development. Meanwhile, the information is transmitted to the rest of the Battle Group via radio data links.
Moments later, in another section of CIC, the ship’s long-range two-dimensional air search radar is just beginning to pick up a faint return at its maximum range. The information from the air search radar coupled with the line of bearing from your ESM allows you to localize the contact and determine an accurate range and bearing. Information continues to arrive, as the ESM equipment classifies the J-band emission as belonging to a hostile nation’s attack aircraft capable of carrying anti-ship cruise missiles.
The contact continues inbound, headed toward the Battle Group. Within minutes, it is within range of your ship’s three-dimensional search and track radar. The contact’s bearing, range, and altitude are plotted to give an accurate course and speed.
As the aircraft approaches the outer edge of its air-launched cruise missile’s (ALCM) range, the ESM operator reports that aircraft’s radar sweep has changed from a search pattern to a single target track mode. This indicates imminent launch of a missile. According to the Rules of Engagement (ROE) in effect, you have determined hostile intent on the part of the target and should defend the ship against imminent attack. You inform your CIC team of your intentions, and select a weapon, in this case a surface to air missile, to engage the target. You also inform the Anti-Air Warfare Commander of the indications of hostile intent, and he places you and the other ships in Air Warning Red, “attack in progress”.
As the target closes to the maximum range of your weapon system, the fire control or tactical computer program, using target course and speed computes a predicted intercept point (PIP) inside the missile engagement envelope. This information and the report that the weapon system has locked-on the target is reported to you. You authorize “batteries release” and the missile is launched toward the PIP. As the missile speeds towards its target at Mach 2+, the ship’s sensors continue to track both the aircraft and the missile. Guidance commands are sent to the missile to keep it on course.
On board the enemy aircraft, the pilot is preparing to launch his own countermeasures when his ESM equipment indicates he is being engaged. This warning comes with but precious few seconds, as the missile enters the terminal phase of its guidance. In a desperate attempt to break the radar lock, the pilot uses evasive maneuvering. It’s too late though. As the missile approaches its lethal “kill radius,” the proximity fuze on the missile’s warhead detonates the missile’s explosive charge, sending fragments out in every direction, destroying or neutralizing the target. This information is confirmed by your ship’s sensors. The radar continues to track that target as it falls into the sea and the ESM equipment goes silent.
a. Detect to engage:
b. Command and Control Warfare (C2W): The direction of forces and weapons to achieve a mission or goal.
This warfare discipline provides the capabilities and organization needed to disrupt, neutralize, and deceive the enemy’s command and control systems while protecting our own. A classic example is the suppression of enemy air defenses through overt electronic warfare. Command and control is the foundation upon which the planning and execution of naval operations are built-from peace-time forward presence, to operations other than war, to crisis response, to regional or global war. It is the tool the naval commander uses to cope with the uncertainty of combat and to direct his forces to accomplish the assigned mission. Naval command and control reflects the way we organize, train, and fight.
Command and control is an essential element of the art and science of naval warfare. Command is the authoritative act of making decisions and ordering action; control is the act of monitoring and influencing this action. These acts-supported by a system of people, information, and technology-enable the naval commander to cope with the uncertainty of combat and to employ military force more efficiently. Modern technology has broadened the scope and increased the complexity of command and control, but its foundations remain constant: professional leadership, competence born of a high level of training, flexibility in organization and equipment, and cohesive doctrine. These elements establish a framework for effective command and control that must be mastered by all who exercise command in the naval Services.
Command and control governs all areas of naval warfare. To be effective, it requires the commander to have a thorough understanding of the nature and conduct of war, naval leadership, the command and control process, and the supporting information systems. It requires an appreciation of the vulnerabilities and weaknesses in our own command and control process and systems-as well as insight into the nature of adversary command and control. The requirement to exercise effective command and control in today’s environment extends to all levels of warfare, across the full range of military operations.
c. Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS):
Naval Gun Fire Support plays a vital role in supporting Landing Force (USMC, USN, USA) units during amphibious operations. The general mission of NSFS is to support amphibious operations by destroying, neutralizing, or suppressing:
1. Shore installations that oppose the approach of ships and aircraft
2. Defenses that may oppose the insertion of the Landing Force
3. Defenses that may oppose the advance of the Landing Force There are two types of tactical missions that naval ships can provide while in support of the Landing Force. They are Direct Support and General Support.
.2 Define the following acronyms:
b. SONAR- SOund Navigation And Ranging. It refers to electronic equipment that transmits audible sound energy into the surrounding water to determine the direction to, depth of, and distance of detected objects.
.3 State the two warfare areas that utilize naval gun systems.
108.5 State the purpose of fire control.
b. Tomahawk - A fully operational and proven part of the battle group strike arsenal. It is an integral part of strike planning for power projection ashore. Tomahawk is capable attacking point targets, providing decoy and deception, and acting as a force multiplier. Tomahawk missiles are typically employed sequentially.
c. Vertical launched ASROC- Merely a torpedo with a rocket booster attached to its tail. ASROC is an acronym for Anti Submarine Rocket. Once the weapon has cleared the launcher and the booster has separated, a parachute is deployed and the weapon safely drops into the water. Upon entry, salt water activates the torpedo and it begins a set search pattern for the submarine or target it was launched against.
d. Standard missiles- A surface to air missile, is the surface navy’s primary offensive anti air weapon. All Standard Missiles require some form of guidance to intercept and destroy or neutralize their targets. It can, in certain circumstances, be fired against surface or shore targets.
e. Torpedo- Anti-ship, anti-submarine.
The main purpose of a torpedo is to destroy submarines. However, they are capable of being set to attack surface targets.
SSDS options range from use as a tactical decision aid (up to the point of recommending when to engage with specific systems) to use as an automatic weapon system. SSDS will correlate target detections from individual radars, the electronic support measures (ESM) system, and the identification-friend or foe (IFF) system, combining these to build composite tracks on targets while identifying and prioritizing threats. Similarly, SSDS will expedite the assignment of weapons for threat engagement. It will provide a “recommend engage” display for operators or, if in automatic mode, will fire the weapons, transmit ECM, deploy chaff or a decoy, or provide some combination of these.
.8 Discuss the purpose of the following radars:
b. Surface search- Surface search radars provide short-range (100 nautical miles or less), 360-degree coverage. They can determine a contact’s range and bearing.
c. Fire control- The function of Fire Control radar is to lock on to and identify a specific hostile target in order to direct a weapon to destroy it. Most FC radars use a narrow beam to perform their function. It can determine a target’s range, bearing, and elevation. Some Fire Control systems have built-in search and track radar; others rely on completely separate search radars and a target hand-off.
d. Navigation- Navigational radars tend to be low power and have shorter ranges than surface or fire control radars. They are primarily used in harbors and restricted waters due to their higher resolution.
CSOSS provides the means to manage combat systems readiness around-the-clock, at-sea and in-port, in peacetime and in wartime. It consists of people, places, and procedures just as EOSS does for the Engineers.
b. Combat Systems Officer of the Watch- Located in a central control area designated Combat Systems Maintenance Central (CSMC), the Combat Systems Officer of the Watch (CSOOW) is the unifying watch station for coordinating all CSOSS-based operations. Using CSOSS procedures, status boards, and other reference materials, the CSOOW communicates with CIC, Action Area Supervisors, Engineering, Damage Control, and Supply in order to coordinate system initialization, configuration changes, and casualty control/restoration. For non-combat and inport periods, the CSOOW maintains positive control of the combat system during all evolutions. This centralized control enhances safety and security between times of heightened readiness.
c. Area supervisor (air, surface, undersea, electronic)- Area Supervisors, assigned during Condition I and as needed in Condition III, coordinate efforts to maintain a specific area of the Combat System. Under the direction of the CSOOW, they supervise assigned technicians and operators to maintain maximum readiness of the equipment within their area.
.13 Explain the difference between active and passive sonars.
b. Pressure: Pressure in most circumstances is more important than salinity, but in the sea its change is constant and predictable. It also causes a change in density, and the result is an increase in sound speed of 0.017 m/sec for every meter of depth increase. This slight change, which is important when temperature remains constant, causes a sound beam to bend upward at great depths.
c. Salinity: Salinity, which on the average ranges from 32 to 38 parts per thousand (ppt), is fairly constant in the open ocean. A change of salinity will cause a small corresponding change in density with a resulting variation of sound speed. The greatest variation in salinity in the open ocean exists in the vicinity of "oceanic fronts," which are narrow zones separating water masses of different physical characteristics, usually exhibiting very large horizontal gradients of temperature and salinity. Even greater variation in salinity can be expected around the mouths of rivers, heavy ice, and in areas of extraordinary rainfall (e.g., the monsoon) where a layer of fresh water overrides a layer of salt water. A change in salinity of one part per thousand will result in a change in sound speed of approximately 1.3 meters per second.
.16 Discuss the following terms and the hazards associated with each:
b. Mis-fire- The weapon did not fire. Failure of a component to fire or explode following an intentional attempt to cause an item to do so.
c. Hot gun- A gun whose barrel has temperature has been raised to a temperature at which cook-off of a round is possible.
d. Train warning circle - The train warning circle is measured 18 inches from the furthest projection of the gun mount or missile launcher. It is marked as a solid red line, 4 inches wide. The red line will be labeled with “DANGER AREA” by painting 2 inch high white letters inside the 4 inch wide red danger circle line. The danger area label shall be repeated around the circle on 4 foot centers as practicable.
If the train warning circle comes against any part of the ships’ structure, a seven foot vertical extension of the line is required, and “DANGER AREA” shall be stenciled as a height of 5 feet from the deck.
a. HE-PD- HE” denotes the projectile itself is High explosive, while “PD” denotes the type of fuze installed on this projectile is Point Detonating.
A PD fuze requires the depression of a percussion rod to strike a detonation charge installed at the base of the fuze which causes the entire projectile to explode.
HE-PD projectiles are used against armored targets such as tanks, jeeps, ships. They are also fired against buildings, bunkers, and pill boxes.
b. HE-VT- “HE” denotes the projectile itself is High explosive, while “VT” denotes the type of fuze installed on this projectile is Proximity (or Variable) Timed.
All “VT” fuzed projectiles are powered with wet batteries with the active ingredients contained in a glass ampoule. Upon set back (when the projectile is fired) the ampoule is broken and the battery is automatically activated. Within one second, the fuse begins to emit small bursts of RF energy (similar to a RADAR) and “looks” for a signal return indicating a target. Once this return is strong enough, the fuze detonates the projectile.
HE-VT projectiles are used primarily against air targets, exploding in front of it. They create large amounts of shrapnel which the air craft or missile flies through, tearing pieces of it open and/or away.
c. HE MT-PD- “HE” denotes the projectile itself is High explosive, while “MT-PD” denotes the type of fuze installed on this projectile is Mechanical Timed, Point Detonating.
An MT-PD fuze detonates after a predetermined length of time after the projectile is fired. The exact time is set before the projectile is loaded into the chamber by a mechanical fuze setter on the mount or by hand by a Gunners Mate using a special fuze wrench. The fuze will not function until the projectile is fired. The “PD” aspect of this fuze is a safety back-up in the event the mechanical time fuze malfunctions.
HE MT-PD projectiles are primarily used to obtain an air burst against troops in the open during NSFS.
d. VT non-FRAG- VT non-FRAG projectiles function exactly as the HE-VT projectiles except that the projectile does not explode and cause large amounts of shrapnel. When the fuze functions, it causes the charge in the body of the projectile to rapidly burn, which in turn blows a plug out of the base of the projectile to pop out and allow the rapidly burning charge to create a cloud of smoke. These projectiles are used for training purposes only to judge the accuracy of the Fire Control System against air targets.
They permit the repeated use of costly target drones.
e. RAP- RAP denotes a Rocket Assisted Projectile. Certain projectiles are fitted with small rocket motors that actuate either (1) upon being fired from the gun mount, or (2) upon deceleration of the projectile. Their sole purpose is to extend the range of the Gun Weapon Ssystem.
RAP projectiles come in the same varieties as those being discussed in this topic.
f. BL&P - Blind loaded and plugged. These projectiles are primarily used for target practice, range testing, and proving ground tests. They contain an inert material that combined with the projectile itself, is the equivalent of a standard projectiles weight.
g. HE-IR- “HE” denotes the projectile itself is High explosive, while “IR” denotes the type of fuze installed on this projectile is sensitive to Infra-Red heat or light sources.
They function in the same manner as HE-VT projectiles, yet the installed electronic circuits “look” for infra-red heat signatures generated by combustion engines.
They are employed against aircraft, and explode just as the VT fuzed projectiles do – in front of or very near the target.
h. WP- White phosphorous. This projectile is considered to be a chemical projectile and is loaded with a toxic, harassing, or smoke producing agent. Of the smoke agents, white phosphorus is the most frequently used.
WP projectiles are designed to produce heavy smoke and, secondarily an incendiary effect. The small WP containers are expelled and scattered upon impact.
i. HE-CVT- “HE” denotes the projectile itself is High explosive, while “CVT” denotes the type of fuze installed on this projectile is a Controlled Proximity (or Variable) Timed fuze.
HE-CVT is functionally identical to an HE-VT except that the proximity timing is not set until a predetermined and preset time period had expired.
b. Direction- Aiming of the weapon towards the target. The components are the brains of a weapon system. Direction components are the control systems, command and display equipment, data link systems, etc. They schedule or assign weapon systems, prioritize targets, and determine the optimum time to fire the weapon
c. Delivery- Firing of the round. Delivery components are the missile launchers, gun mounts, chaff launchers, torpedo tubes, etc.
d. Destruction- Detonation of the round. The destruction components or units of a weapon system are the missiles, projectiles, torpedoes, etc.,
To reduce the amount of frequencies being used. These High Frequencies may detonate a round.
The high intensity radio frequency (RF) fields produced by modern radio and radar transmitting equipment can cause sensitive electroexplosive devices (EEDs) contained in ordnance systems to actuate prematurely. The Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO) problem was first recognized in 1958. The prime factors causing the problem have been increasing ever since. The use of EEDs in ordnance systems has become essential. At the same time, the power output and frequency ranges of radio and radar transmitting equipment have also increased.
RF energy may enter an ordnance item through a hole or crack in its skin or through firing leads, wires, and so on. In general, ordnance systems that are susceptible to RF energy are most susceptible during assembly, disassembly, loading, unloading, and handling in RF electromagnetic fields.
The most likely results of premature actuation are propellant ignition or reduction of reliability by dudding. Where out-of-line Safety and Arming (S + A) devices are used, the actuation of EEDs may be undetectable unless the item is disassembled. If the item does not contain an S +A device, or if RF energy bypasses the S +A device, the warhead may detonate.
Ordnance items susceptible to RF are assigned one of three HERO classifications, based upon the probability that they will be adversely affected by the RF environment. Those classifications are:
.20 Explain the term "C4".
They are the MK86 GFCS which are on Spruance class destroyers and Ticonderoga class cruisers plus the MK92 FCS which is on Perry Class frigates.
The gun mounts utilized by these gun weapon systems are the MK45 Light Weight Guh Mount (LWGM) and the MK75 76 millimeter Gun Mount, respectively.
108.23 State the purpose of the electronic cooling systems.
.24 State the purpose of the ships’ gyro as it relates to weapon systems: