Section 111: ESWS: Pollution Control

111: Pollution Control

111.1 Define the following:

Any material that, because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics, may pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment when released or spilled into the environment.

Any discarded material (liquid, solid, or gas) that meets the definition of an HM or is designated as HW by the Environmental Protection Agency or state or local authority.

Oil mixed with water or other fluids such that the mixture is no longer useful.

Oil whose characteristics have changed markedly since being originally refined and has become unsuitable for use, and is not considered economically recyclable.

The Clean Water Act authorizes the Department of Defense to issue regulations governing the design, construction, operation of marine sanitation devices on board vessels owned and operated by the government.

(1) Notify the shoreside NOSC/cognizant facility commanding officer by the most expeditious means possible.
(2) Notify the National Response Center (NRC) by telephone at (800) 424-8802.
(3) Take, insofar as practical, immediate actions to mitigate the effects of the spill.
(4) Follow up by submitting a naval message.

b. In non-Navy ports (and elsewhere within the contiguous zone), the ship's commanding officer shall:
(1) Notify the appropriate shoreside NOSC and cognizant shore facility commanding officer
specified in the shoreside NOSC contingency plan.
(2) Notify the NRC by telephone at (800) 424-8802.
(3) Take, insofar as practical, immediate actions to mitigate the effects of the spill. Rapid action by the ship's crew can result in containment and collection of the spill. Shipboard personnel shall use available means to clean up minor spills before requesting assistance from shore-based personnel. (4) Follow up by submitting a naval message.

For OHS spills in these areas, ships shall:
a. Initiate immediate action to mitigate the effects of the spill.
b. Notify the predesignated fleet NOSC by naval message.
c. The fleet NOSC shall implement the applicable fleet NOSC Oil and Hazardous Substance Spill Response Plan.

Shipboard operational and management requirements for bilge water, oil, oily waste, and shipboard oil pollution abatement are described in the following paragraphs.

(1) Bilge water and oily waste minimization. Ships shall minimize oil contamination of bilge water. Mechanical seals in oil and water pumps and proper segregation of oily and non-oily wastewater will greatly reduce the generation of oily waste.
(2) Contaminated bilge water and oily waste. Ships shall not use bilge cleaners or chemical agents that promote chemical emulsion (i.e., detergents and surfactants) for machinery space cleaning. Prohibition of these substances will enable OWSs to perform more effectively. NAVSEASYSCOM recommends short-lived detergents for bilge cleaning. In port, ships shall offload oily waste containing chemical emulsion agents or contaminants from other than routine sources of bilge water to shore receiving facilities. If oily waste has become contaminated from other than routine sources, such as aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF), solvents, anti-freeze, or other HM, ships shall advise the receiving shore facility prior to offload. Since some States may consider bilge water to be contaminated, ships in those States shall consult with the host receiving facility for collection and discharge requirements. Chapter 9 requires shore activities to periodically sample/test bilge water and other OW/WO batches to see if the waste contains any material that would classify it as hazardous. If it exceeds established standards, the shore activity must manage it as a hazardous waste. The activity OW/WO Management Plan will provide sampling protocols and procedures and require actions to trace and eliminate the source of any contamination in the OW/WO. Activities will determine the frequency of testing by referencing the historic characteristics of samples and the level of confidence in the consistency of samples. Ships shall comply with shore activity established bilge water and oily waste sampling requirements.
(3) Bilge water and oily waste disposal in port. Navy policy is to maximize separation, recycling, and reuse of oil. While in a Navy port, ships shall dispose of bilge water and oily wastes per supporting activity guidance using one or more of the following approaches:
(a) Permanent shore reception facilities. In Navy ports that provide shore oily waste collection, shoreside collection of bilge water and oily wastes followed by recovery of recyclable products is the preferred method of dealing with these shipboard wastes.
(b) OWS system. Ships equipped with bilge water OWS and OCM systems may use them, provided the effluent does not exceed 15 ppm, cause a sheen, or violate any other applicable water quality standard. Prior to discharging in a Navy port via an OWS, ships shall consult with the supporting shore facility host command for discharge requirements. In non-Navy ports, use of the OWS is the preferred method of dealing with these wastes.
(c) Ship waste offload barges (SWOBs). Supporting shore activities shall operate SWOBs per reference (e) and their OW/WO Management Plan. Ships not equipped with an operable OWS shall use waste oil collection lines ashore, if available, or shall discharge to a SWOB.
(4) Emergency dewatering. Ships shall not use eductors to dewater bilges containing oily waste, except in emergency situations when OWS systems (including OWHTs) are not available or are not of sufficient capacity to handle the immediate flow requirements. If a ship must use an eductor, it shall make every effort to discharge beyond 12 nm from land and while underway. The ship shall make an engineering log entry concerning eductor use to discharge bilge waste overboard.

If equipped with OCM, discharge less than 15 parts per million oil. Ships with Oil Water Separator (OWS) or Bilge Water Processing Tank (BWPT) but no Oil Content Monitor, must process all machinery space bilge water through OWS or BWPT.

MSDSs are technical bulletins containing information about materials, such as composition, chemical, and physical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and precautions for safe handling, use, and disposal.

(a) Ensure that approved personal protective clothing and equipment are maintained and utilized.
(b) Ensure that prior to using or handling any HM, work center personnel have been trained on the hazards associated with that material and are familiar with what an MSDS is, what it contains, and where a copy is available for review.
(c) Ensure that a valid maintenance requirement exists for any HM item not listed in the SMCL and initiate a SMCL feedback report.

(a) Ensure that HM is returned to appropriate stowage upon completion of use or at the end of the workday, whichever is earlier.
(b) Follow instructions provided for the proper use of HM.
(c) Collect and segregate any used HM for proper offload per chapter D15.
(d) Report any spills of HM to the Duty Officer (in port) or the Chief Of the Watch (underway).
(e) Report any violation of HM use, storage, and handling precautions to the supervisor for resolution/correction.
(f) Be alert to prevent the onboard storage and use of restricted material during underway operations without prior approval or authorization from the Executive Officer. Ensure limited material is being used per SMCL guidance.

For specific handling and use standards, refer to the material/item MSDS. Observe the following general standards when handling hazardous material, HM:
a. Workcenter supervisors shall ensure that, prior to using any HM, machining or abrasive cleaning of components containing HM (i.e., beryllium and other heavy metals), personnel under their supervision are trained on the hazards associated with that material and that they have been provided with necessary protective clothing and equipment (i.e., eye protection, respiratory devices, and gloves impermeable to the HM in use).
b. Workcenter supervisors shall ensure that spaces are well-ventilated in areas where HM is used or machined.
c. Upon completion of HM use, return surplus material to its appropriate storage location.
d. Avoid breathing vapors or dust when using or machining HM.
e. Avoid contact with the eyes or prolonged contact with skin when using or machining HM.
f. Prohibit smoking, drinking, or eating in areas where open containers of HM is being used.
g. Ensure personal protective equipment (eye protection, respiratory devices, gloves impermeable to the HM in use, etc.) is in good operating condition and is readily available to all personnel working with HM.
h. Use a respirator with appropriate filter when potentially exposed to particulate matter, hazardous gases, or vapors. Consult the MDR for specific guidance in this regard, and for a determination of the need for more stringent respiratory protection requirements.

Manufacturer's labels for shipboard identification of HM containers must clearly identify the material name, the manufacturer's name and address, and the nature of the hazard presented by the HM including the target organ potentially affected by the material. A manufacturer's label may be a tag, sign, placard, or gummed sticker.

Open flames are not allowed in flammable liquid storerooms, issue rooms, ready service storerooms, such as paint mix and issue room, or in the vicinity of flammable material cabinets. Smoking is prohibited in these spaces and within 15 feet of flammable material cabinets.
Flammable and combustible materials shall be stowed separately from oxidizing materials.
Personnel responsible for stowage of flammable and combustible materials should be familiar with fire prevention and safe handling procedures.
Materials stored in the flammable liquid storeroom (except alcohols) shall be unpacked before stowage. The packaging materials shall be removed from the storeroom immediately. Materials shall be stowed to minimize rish of spills or breakage. Individual containers shall have either the Department of Transportation (DOT) or National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) label identifying them as flammable or combustible.
Partially used materials returned to stowage facilities shall be tightly closed and properly labeled. Inventory lists of flammable and combustible materials in stowage facilities shall be maintained. Materials in corroded or leaking containers shall be transferred to new containers and labeled, and the old container shall be properly disposed of.
During strip ship condition, all unnecessary flammables and combustibles shall be off loaded. Those necessary for the ship's operation shall be removed from in-use stowage facilities and placed in the ship's flammable liquids storeroom.

Flammable and combustible materials shall be kept away from open flames, hot work areas, and other sources of heat, and strong oxidizing materials. Smoking is not permitted in areas where flammable and combustible materials are being handled.
Containers of flammable and combustible material shall be kept covered or sealed unless in immediate use. Materials shall be returned to flammable material stowage facilities after use. Handling areas for flammable and combustible materials shall be well ventilated to prevent accumulation of vapors. Consult the Gas Free Engineer to determine safe ventilation rates. Containers shall be protected from physical damage during handling.
Containers of flammable and combustile materials and containers used for their transfer shall be electrically grounded before transfer. Rubber-soled shoes should be worn when handling flammable and combustible materials.

Each ship shall maintain one Mk 11 Oil Spill Containment and Cleanup Kit, AEL 2-550024006, for overboard spills, and AEL 2-550024007, for spills onboard ship. These kits include shovels, gloves, coveralls, buckets, absorbent, and sufficient quantities of containers and labels at the hazardous waste accumulation facility. Many ships are confused over the use and contents of the Mark II Oil Containment and clean-up kit(AEL 2-550024006), and the Hazardous Material Spill Response Kit (AEL 2-550024007). The Mark II Oil Containment and Clean-up kit is intended for overboard, waterborne oil spill response. The objective of the oil spill kit is to contain oil floating on the water. The absorbent in the kit floats and does not absorb water, only oil or oily substances. The Hazmat spill kit, on the other hand, is intended for on-board ship spills only. The absorbents in the hazmat spill kit absorb water and would sink if used for oil spills over the side, causing more pollution. Also, the Hazmat spill kit contains protective equipment, bags, and labels which would be applicable to a chemical spill, but are not usually required for oil spill cleanup. Ships must also have an oil spill contingency plan, and a hazardous material spill contingency plan, since each area addresses different equipment, responses, and reporting requirements.

Begin with an outline or chart of the major steps in the operation (operational analysis). Next, conduct a Preliminary Hazard Analysis by listing all of the hazards associated with each step in the operational analysis along with possible causes for those hazards. I.E.

Hazards : Wet deck, Gear adrift
Causes Personnel slips/falls; Rushing

For each hazard identified, determine the associated degree of risk in terms of probability and severity.

First, develop risk control options. Start with the most serious risk first and select controls that will reduce the risk to a minimum consistent with mission accomplishment. With selected controls in place, decide if the benefit of the operation outweighs the risk. If risk outweighs benefit or if assistance is required to implement controls, communicate with higher authority in the chain of command.

The following measures can be used to eliminate hazards or reduce the degree of risk. These are listed by order of preference:
(1) Administrative Controls - Controls that reduce risks through specific administrative actions, such as:
(a) providing suitable warnings, markings, placards, signs, and notices.
(b) establishing written policies, programs instructions and standard operating procedures (SOP).
(c) training personnel to recognize hazards and take appropriate precautionary measures.
(d) limiting the exposure to a hazard (either by reducing the number of personnel/assets or the length of time they are exposed).

(2) Engineering Controls - Controls that use engineering methods to reduce risks by design, material selection or substitution when technically or economically feasible.

(3) Personal Protective Equipment - Serves as a barrier between personnel and a hazard. It should be used when other controls do not reduce the hazard to an cceptable level.

Conduct follow-up evaluations of the controls to ensure they remain in place and have the desired effect. Monitor for changes which may require further ORM. Take corrective action when necessary.

a. Flammble and combustible material
b. Toxic Material
c. Corrosive materials including acids and bases
d. Oxidizing materials
e. Aerosol materials
f. Compressed Gas

Note: EAWS Coordinators will dictate the information obtained from the video.

All of the material obtained for this section was submitted by
HM1(SW) Mauricio Lopez

For questions or comments please contact:

AZC(AW/NAC) Kimberly King