119.1 Define the following:
a. Oily waste
Oil mixed with water or other fluids such that the mixture is no longer useful.
b. Waste oil
Oil whose characteristics have changed markedly since being originally refined and has become unsuitable for further use, and is not considered economically recyclable.
2. Discuss the legislation that governs the discharge of oily waste into the ocean.
3. Describe the actions required for oil spills within the U.S. contiguous zone.
An accidental or not permitted discharge of OHS into or upon the water. Ships shall comply with the following OHS spill response procedures when within the U.S. contiguous zone.
(1) Notify the shoreside NOSC/cognizant facility commanding officer by the most expeditious means possible. For environmentally significant spills, see paragraph 19-9.2.8.
(2) Notify the National Response Center (NRC) by telephone at (800) 424-8802.
(3) Take, insofar as practical, immediate actions to mitigate the effects of the spill.
(4) Follow up by submitting a naval message. Appendices H and I provide formats for OHS spill reports.
b. In non-Navy ports (and elsewhere within the contiguous zone), the ship's commanding officer shall:
(1) Notify the appropriate shore side NOSC and cognizant shore facility commanding otlcer specified in the shore side NOSC contingency plan. For environmentally significant spills, see paragraph 19-9.2.8.
(2) Notify the NRC by telephone at (800) 424-8802.
(3) Take, insofar as practical, immediate actions to mitigate the effects of the spill. Rapid action by the ship's crew can result in containment and collection of the spill. Shipboard personnel shall use available means to clean up minor spills before requesting assistance from shore-based personnel.
(4) Follow up by submitting a naval message.
4. Describe the actions required for oil spills outside the U.S. contiguous zone.
a. Initiate immediate action to mitigate the effects of the spill.
b. Notify the predesignated fleet Navy On Scene Coordinator, NOSC, by naval message.
c. The fleet NOSC shall implement the applicable fleet NOSC Oil and Hazardous Sub stance Spill Response Plan.
OHS Spill Response in Waters of Foreign
Ships shall take the following action for an Oil or Hazardous Substance, OHS, spill in these waters:
a. The ship's commanding officer shall initiate immediate action to mitigate the effects of the spill.
b. The ship's commanding officer shall immediately notify the predesignated fleet NOSC and/or shoreside NOSC (as defined in governing contingency plans) by naval message.
c. The fleet and shoreside NOSC shall implement the applicable NOSC Oil and Hazardous Substance Spill Response Plan.
5. Explain the general operational and management requirements for bilge water, oil, oily waste, and shipboard pollution abatement.
Ships shall minimize oil contamination of bilge water. Mechanical seals in oil and water pumps and proper segregation of oily and non-oily wastewater will greatly reduce the generation of oily waste.
b. Contaminated bilge water and oily waste.
Ships shall not use bilge cleaners or chemical agents that promote chemical emulsion (i.e., detergents and surfactants) for machinery space cleaning. Prohibition of these substances will enable Oil and Water Separator Systems, OWSS, to perform more effectively.
NAVSEASYSCOM recommends short-lived detergents
for bilge cleaning.
In port, ships shall Offload oily waste containing chemical emulsion agents or contaminants from other than routine sources of bilge water to shore receiving facilities. If oily waste has become contaminated from other than routine sources, such as aqueous forming foam (AFFF), solvents, anti-freeze, or other HM, ships shall advise the receiving shore facility prior to offload.
Since some States may consider bilge water to be contaminated, ships in those States shall consult with the host receiving facility for collection and discharge requirement.
Shore activities are required to periodically sample bilge water and other OWAVO batches to see if the waste contains any material that would classify it as hazardous. If it exceeds established standards, the shore activity must manage it as a hazardous waste. The activity Oily Waste/Waste Oil, (OW/WO), Management Plan will provide sampling protocols and procedures and require actions to test and eliminate the source of any contamination in the oily waste/waste oil. Activities will determine the frequency of testing by referencing the historic characteristics of samples and the level of confidence in the consistency of samples. Ships shall comply with shore activity established bilge water and oily waste sampling requirements.
(3) Bilge water and oily waste disposal in port.
Navy policy is to maximize separtion, recycling, and reuse of oil. While in a Navy port, ships shall dispose of bilge water and oily wastes per supporting activity guidance using one or more of the following approaches:
(a) Permanent shore reception facilities.
In Navy ports that provide shore oily waste collection, shoreside collection of bilge water and oily wastes followed by recovery of recyclable products is the preferred method of dealing with these shipboard wastes.
(b) Oil Water Separator, (OWS), system. Ships equipped with bilge water OWS and OCM systems may use them, provided the effluent does not exceed 15 ppm, cause a sheen, or violate any other applicable water quality standard. Prior to discharging in a Navy port via an OWS, ships shall consult with the supporting shore facility host command for discharge requirements. In non-Navy ports, use of the OWS is the preferred method of dealing with these wastes
6. Discuss the oily waste discharge limitations in geographic zones and waters other than those of the United States.
7. Define and discuss data found on an Material Safety Data Sheets, MSDS.
Composition, chemical, physical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and precautions for safe handling, use and disposal.
8. Discuss Work Center Supervisor responsibilities as they pertain to HMC&M.
(a) Ensure that approved personal protective clothing and equipment are maintained and used.
(b) Ensure that prior to initial use or handling any HM, workcenter personnel have been trained on the hazards associated with that material and are familiar with what an MSDS is, what it contains, and where a copy is available for review.
9. Discuss all hands responsibilities as they pertain to HMC&M.
(b) Properly use and handle hazardous material, (HM).
(c) Collect and segregate any residue resulting from use of HM issued from the HAZMAT Center for turn-in to the supply department/HAZMAT Center.
(d) Report any spills of HM to the Officer Of the Deck, and/or Damage Control Central/Central Control Station.
(e) Properly stow or return to the HAZMATCEN/supply department any HM found improperly stowed in work or berthing spaces.
10. Discuss proper stowage procedures for HMC&M.
a. Workcenter supervisors shall ensure that, prior to using any HM, machining or abrasive cleaning of components containing HM (i.e., beryllium and other heavy metals), personnel under their supervision are trained on the hazards associated with that material and that they have been provided with necessary protective clothing and equipment (i.e., eye protection, respiratory devices, and gloves impermeable to the HM in use).
b. Workcenter supervisors shall ensure that spaces are well-ventilated in areas where HM is used or machined.
c. Upon completion of HM use, return surplus material to its appropriate storage location.
d. Avoid breathing vapors or dust when using or machining HM.
e. Avoid contact with the eyes or prolonged contact with skin when using or machining HM.
f. Prohibit smoking, drinking, or eating in areas where open containers of HM is being used.
g. Ensure personal protective equipment (eye protection, respiratory devices, gloves impermeable to the HM in use, etc.) is in good operating condition and is readily available to all personnel working with HM.
h. Use a respirator with appropriate filter when potentially exposed to particulate matter, hazardous gases, or vapors. Consult the MDR for specific guidance in this regard, and for a determination of the need for more stringent respiratory protection requirements.
11. Discuss proper marking of hazardous material containers.
12. Discuss flammable material stowage requirements.
13. Discuss the precautions observed when handling flammables
The main objective in working safely with flammable liquids is to avoid accumulation of vapors and to control sources of ignition.
Besides the more obvious ignition sources, such as open flames from Bunsen burners, matches and cigarette smoking, less obvious sources, such as electrical equipment, static electricity and gas-fired heating devices should be considered.
Some electrical equipment, including switches, motors, and relays can produce sparks that can ignite vapors. Although some newer equipment have spark-free induction motors, the on-off switches and speed controls may be able to produce a spark when they are adjusted because they have exposed contacts. One solution is to remove any switches located on the device and insert a switch on the cord near the plug end.
Pouring flammable liquids can generate static electricity. The development of static electricity is related to the humidity levels in the area. Cold, dry atmospheres are more likely to facilitate static electricity. Bonding or using ground straps for metallic or non-metallic containers can prevent static generation.
Control all ignition sources in areas where flammable liquids are used. Smoking, open flames and spark producing equipment should not be used.
Whenever possible use plastic or metal containers or safety cans. When working with open containers, use a fume hood to control the accumulation of flammable vapor.
Use bottle carriers for transporting glass containers.
Use equipment with spark-free, intrinsically safe induction motors or air motors to avoid producing sparks.
Avoid using equipment with series-wound motors, since they are likely to produce sparks.
Do not heat flammable liquids with an open flame. Steam baths, salt and sand baths, oil and wax baths, heating mantles and hot air or nitrogen baths are preferable.
Minimize the production of vapors and the associated risk of ignition by flashback. Vapors from flammable liquids are denser than air and tend to sink to the floor level where they can spread over a large area.
Electrically bond metal containers when transferring flammable liquids from one to another. Bonding can be direct, as a wire attached to both containers, or indirect, as through a common ground system.
When grounding non-metallic containers, contact must be made directly to the liquid, rather than to the container. In the rare circumstance that static cannot be avoided, proceed slowly to give the charge time to disperse or conduct the procedure in an inert atmosphere.
14. State the location and contents of the oil spill containment kit.
Many ships are confused over the use and contents of the Mark II Oil Containment and clean-up kit(AEL 2-550024006), and the Hazardous Material Spill Response Kit (AEL 2-550024007).
The Mark II Oil Containment and Clean-up kit is intended for overboard, waterborne oil spill response. The objective of the oil spill kit is to contain oil floating on the water. The absorbent in the kit floats and does not absorb water, only oil or oily substances.
The Hazmat spill kit, on the other hand, is intended for on-board ship spills only. The absorbents in the hazmat spill kit absorb water and would sink if used for oil spills over the side, causing more pollution. Also, the Hazmat spill kit contains protective equipment, bags, and labels which would be applicable to a chemical spill, but are not usually required for oil spill cleanup. Ships must also have an oil spill contingency plan, and a hazardous material spill contingency plan, since each area addresses different equipment, responses,and reporting requirements.
15. Describe required sub-tasks within each of the five ORM elements for conducting petroleum product evolutions (internal transfers, onloads, offloads).
Begin with an outline or chart of the major steps in the operation (operational analysis). Next, conduct a Preliminary Hazard Analysis by listing all of the hazards associated with each step in the operational analysis along with possible causes for those hazards.
Personnel slips/falls ------
Wet deck, Gear adrift
Rushing Time/position requirements ---
Incomplete/Inaccurate brief requirements confused
Boat overloaded ----------
b. Assessing hazards
For each hazard identified, determine the associated degree of risk in terms of probability and severity.
c. Making risk decisions
First, develop risk control options. Start with the most serious risk first and select controls that will reduce the risk to a minimum consistent with mission accomplishment. With selected controls in place, decide if the benefit of the operation outweighs the risk. If risk outweighs benefit or if assistance is required to implement controls, communicate with higher authority in the chain of command.
d. Implementing controls
The following measures can be used to eliminate hazards or reduce the degree of risk. These are listed by order of preference:
(1) Administrative Controls - Controls that
reduce risks through
specific administrative actions, such as:
(a) providing suitable warnings, markings, placards, signs, and notices.
(b) establishing written policies, programs instructions and standard operating procedures (SOP).
(c) training personnel to recognize hazards and take appropriate precautionary measures.
(d) limiting the exposure to a hazard (either by reducing the number of personnel/assets or the length of time they are exposed).
(2) Engineering Controls - Controls that use engineering methods to reduce risks by design, material selection or substitution when technically or economically feasible.
(3) Personal Protective Equipment - Serves as a barrier between personnel and a hazard. It should be used when other controls do not reduce the hazard to an acceptable level.
Conduct follow-up evaluations of the controls to ensure they remain in place and have the desired effect. Monitor for changes which may require further ORM. Take corrective action when necessary.
16. Discuss the information provided in the Oil Spills In-port Prevention video.
You will need to view the video and adhere to whatever your EAWS coordinator dictates on this question.
King's (Core) EAWS Tutorial
AZC(AW/NAC) Kimberly King